Now showing items 1-20 of 7402

    • Relative energy deficiency in dance (RED-D): a consensus method approach to REDs in dance

      Allen, Nick; Kelley, Shane; Lanfear, Martin; Mountjoy, Margo; Reynolds, Andy; Clarke, Richard; Wyon, Matthew; Wolman, Roger (BMJ Publishing Group, 2024-12-31)
      Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (REDs) is a potentially severe, challenging, broad-spectrum syndrome with potential negative health and performance outcomes. The numerous research publications and International Olympic Committee consensus statements relating to REDs testify to the challenges faced in early identification or screening, diagnosis, and management. Like sport, dance, in its simplest form, can be identified as an activity resulting in physiological energy demands and, as such, requires appropriate energy availability concerning energy expenditures. However, the specificity of physiological and psychological demands in dance must be considered when considering REDs. An environment where physical activity can exceed 30 hours per week and where culture may instil a value that thinness is required puts dancers at increased risk for REDs. The purpose of this study was to provide dance specific guidance dance on this complex condition. A RAND/UCLA Delphi Panel method with nominal group technique was used to review the literature from REDs to evaluate how it may relate to dance. In addition to the EP, which was assembled from a multidisciplinary background with expertise in REDs and multiple genres of dance, six focus groups were commissioned. Four of the focus groups were drawn from the EP members and two additional focus groups formed by dancers and artistic leaders. These panels were used to guide the development of a RED-D Diagnosis Pathway, Management Plan and Risk stratification and Return to Dance Pathway. The dance specific pathways are designed to be a practical tool for guiding and supporting clinicians managing RED-D. Furthermore, this paper represents an important focus of this area in dance and serves to stimulate discussion and further research within the sector.
    • Measuring the impact of incorporating case study presentations into applied biomedical science placement workshops for trainee biomedical scientists

      Bashir, Amreen; Dudley, Kathryn; Rana, Karan S.; Wilkins, Kayleigh; Pallett, Ross (Frontiers Media, 2024-02-20)
      Introduction: Successfully completing the Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS) registration portfolio is essential to becoming a Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) registered Biomedical Scientist. In the West Midlands, a unique collaboration between four universities (Aston, Wolverhampton, Coventry, and Keele) and local NHS Trusts supports student placements and portfolio development. The universities support Training Officers in delivering components of the registration portfolio through the delivery of eight combined placement workshops. These have been designed to align to the IBMS registration portfolio and help students meet the HCPC Standards of Proficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a redesigned workshop where students generated and presented medical case studies to peers, academics, and training leads. Materials and Methods: The three phases of the case study intervention included a pre-intervention survey, academic-led sessions focussing on medical case presentations and delivery of the presentation followed by a post-intervention survey. Results: Analysing survey responses pre- and post-intervention, students demonstrated enhanced confidence in their understanding of clinical conditions (p<0.0001), connecting lab findings to diseases, and in delivering a case presentation to their peers (p<0.001). Students reported an increased confidence in structuring case presentations and their critical thinking ability (p<0.0001). All students agreed engaging with the case study workshop improved their ability to communicate knowledge of scientific concepts orally. Thematic analysis revealed that the case presentation deepened students' understanding of multidisciplinary teams. 98% of respondents agreed patient communication should be integrated into Biomedical Sciences courses and 85% would like to see case study presentations embedded into the curriculum. Discussion: Combined placement workshops are an integral part of the Applied Biomedical Science placement journey. Case study presentations are clearly a valuable teaching and learning tool to nurture and develop key transferable skills and competencies in conjunction with Biomedical Science expertise. The collaborative approach in the West Midlands effectively prepares graduates with essential pathology knowledge, skills, and a completed IBMS registration portfolio. This study highlights a successful framework for a collaborative partnership with local NHS trusts that has allowed the completion of numerous pathology placements and could be adopted by other universities delivering accredited Biomedical Science courses.
    • Misogyny in music: actors, business and law

      Bain, Vick; Potočnik, Metka; Arditi, David M.; Nolan, Ryan C. (Palgrave, 2024-12-31)
    • The Bayeux Tapestry: new yarns

      Black, Daisy (Brepols, 2024-12-31)
    • Companies, damned companies and statistics – corporate insolvency through the years: have we got it right with the existing regimes?

      Keay, Andrew; Walton, Peter (Lloyds List Intelligence, 2024-12-31)
      When companies experience insolvency, they may well enter a formal insolvency regime provided for under statute. This paper examines the statistics that have been gathered in relation to company insolvencies in England and Wales and it focuses on the number of all of the formal corporate insolvency regimes that have been available for insolvent companies since records were first kept in 1960. A way to assess whether a policy approach has been successful is to consider changes in the use of formal regimes over time. The aim of the paper is to analyse the statistics, and then to ascertain what can be learned from the statistics as far as the employment of the regimes is concerned.
    • ‘Implacable enemies’? The Labour Party and the intelligence community in 1920s Britain

      Kassimeris, George; Price, Oliver (Taylor & Francis, 2024-01-12)
      The 1920s marked the first decade in which the Labour Party and the British intelligence community had to work closely together. Their relations during this period, which were often strained, have come to be defined by the Zinoviev letter affair. Allegations that intelligence officials leaked the Zinoviev letter to bring down the Labour government in 1924 have persisted for the last century. Using documents that have been largely unexplored, this article argues that the Zinoviev affair was not an isolated incident. It uses two specific case studies to show that a small number of intelligence officials also leaked sensitive information, in the years before and after 1924, in an attempt to undermine and discredit prominent Labour Party figures. By analysing events in the years before and after the Zinoviev affair, the article illustrates how relations between the British state and the Labour Party fluctuated providing a fresh understanding of Labour Party-intelligence relations during the interwar years.
    • Parenting through place-of-care disruptions: a qualitative study of parents' experiences of neonatal care

      Cupit, Caroline; Paton, Alexis; Boyle, Elaine; Pillay, Thillagavathie; Anderson, Josie; Armstrong, Natalie (Wiley, 2023-12-18)
      Introduction: Neonatal care is complex, involving multiple people and technologies within a community of care. When preterm babies are cared for far from home and/or transferred between units, the whole community of care (and particularly parent participation) is disrupted. Although previous studies have captured subjective experiences of parents, there has been little research exploring the material practices undertaken by parents as a consequence of place-of-care decisions, or the social organisation of those practices. Methods: As part of a wider study exploring optimal place-of-care, semistructured interviews were conducted between July 2018 and October 2019 with 48 parents (36 families) with one or more preterm babies (born at 27–31 weeks gestation) cared for in a neonatal unit in the last 12 months. Findings: We highlight parents' labour-intensive and stressful work to: (1) parent in the neonatal care community (an oversight role that goes beyond contemporary notions of ‘involvement’); (2) create continuity amid place-of-care disruptions; and (3) adapt to the managerial logics of neonatal care settings. Our analysis focuses on the work generated by managerial systems that organise place-of-care decision-making and other efficiency-focused practices. Parents are absorbed into negotiating institutional systems and diverted from routine parenting activities. Conclusion: Those involved in the organisation and management of neonatal care should take account of how managerial systems impact parents' workload, ability to participate in their baby's community of care and, ultimately, on the wellbeing and development of babies and their families. Patient or Public Contribution: The OPTI-PREM study embedded parents' experiences of neonatal care into the research, through a discrete workstream that employed qualitative methodology to capture parents' experiences—as reported in this paper. The OPTI-PREM project was also supported by a Bliss volunteer parent panel, which was involved in designing and overseeing the research. Bliss ‘champion[s] the right for every baby born premature or sick to receive the best care by supporting families, campaigning for change and supporting professionals and enabling life-changing research’ (https://www.bliss.org.uk/about-us/about-bliss). A representative of Bliss is a co-author of this manuscript, and a parent representative (named in the Acknowledgements) provided feedback during its preparation.
    • Acoustic metamaterials for sound absorption and insulation in buildings

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Vance, Aaron; Arafat, Abul (Elsevier, 2024-01-31)
      Despite the emergence of acoustic metamaterials with superior sound absorption and transmission loss, their adoption for building sound insulation has been limited. Sound insulation design in buildings is still informed by the acoustic performance of conventional materials, where the mass law contradicts light weighting when it comes to acoustic design. In any case buildings close to noisy environments such as motorways, railway lines and airports still suffer from significant low frequency noise pollution. Although the limited working bandwidth of acoustic metamaterials is a major issue limiting its application, combining meta-units that interact at various frequencies alongside multi-layer conventional solutions can deliver superior sound insulation in buildings. The review put forwards acoustic metamaterials, specifically emphasising superior sound absorption and transmission/insertion loss as critical properties for effective building sound insulation. The paper reveals a variety of acoustic metamaterials that can be adopted to compliment conventional sound insulation approaches for acoustically efficient building design. The performance of these metamaterials is then explained through their characteristic negative mass density, bulk modulus or repeating or locally resonating microstructure. The review is also extended to air transparent acoustic metamaterials that can be used for sound insulation of building ventilation. Lastly the prospects and challenges regarding the adoption of acoustic metamaterials in building insulation are also discussed. Overall, tuneable, and multifunctional acoustic metamaterials when thoughtfully integrated to building sound insulation can lead to significant acoustic comfort, space-saving and light-weighting.
    • Deaf translators/interpreters’ renderings processes - the translation of oral languages

      Stone, Christopher (St. Jerome Publishing, 2007-01-29)
      The rendering of English to BSL within television settings provides us an opportunity to identify ways in which written languages are translated into oral languages (Ong 1982, Furniss 2004), using Kade’s definition (cited in Pöchhacker, 2004) as a starting point. The distribution of blinks is compared in Deaf and hearing Translator/Interpreters to illuminate the role of preparation and rehearsal. Think-aloud-protocols are used to explore whether differences between the two groups point to a contrast between translation and interpretation processes.
    • In the lab with the Kardashians: how Kardashian-linked research finds its audience

      Taylor, Michael; Areia, Carlos; Jones, Meredith; Burton, Kath; Brien, Donna Lee (Routledge, 2024-06-28)
    • The role of smart cities in managing the COVID-19 outbreak in India

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Shetty, Nisha; Gandhi, Lingaraju; Abdalla, Wala; Yabbati, Nagaraju; Hiremath, Rahul (Emerald, 2024-12-31)
      Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has affected around 216 countries and territories worldwide and more than 2000 cities in India, alone. The smart cities mission (SCM) in India started in 2015 and 100 smart cities were selected to be initiated with a total project cost of INR 2031.72 billion. Smart city strategies play an important role in implementing the measures adopted by the government such as the issuance of social distancing regulations and other COVID-19 mitigation strategies. However, there is no research reported on the role of smart cities strategies in managing the COVID-19 outbreak in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach This paper aims to address the research gap in smart cities, technology, and healthcare management through a review of the literature and primary data collected using semistructured interviews. Findings Each city is unique and has different challenges, the study revealed six key findings on how smart cities in India managed the COVID-19 outbreak. They used: Integrated Command and Control Centres, Artificial Intelligence and Innovative Application-based Solutions, Smart Waste Management Solutions, Smart Healthcare Management, Smart Data Management, and Smart Surveillance. Originality/value This paper contributes to informing policymakers of key lessons learnt from the management of COVID-19 in developing countries like India from a smart cities’ perspective. This paper draws on the 6 Cs for the implications directed to leaders and decision-makers to rethink and act on COVID-19. The 6 Cs are: Crisis management leadership; Credible communication; Collaboration; Creative governance; Capturing knowledge; and Capacity building.
    • Changes in secondary metabolite production in response to salt stress in Alcea rosea L.

      Sadeghi, Arezoo; Razmjoo, Jamshid; Karimmojeni, Hassan; Baldwin, Timothy; Mastinu, Andrea (MDPI, 2024-01-31)
      The effect of three levels of salinity on physio-biochemical traits in 10 Alcea rosea (hollyhock) varieties were evaluated. It was observed that salt stress increased both the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in some varieties and decreased them in others. The greatest increases in both TPC and TFC were recorded in the Saman variety (104% and 62%, respectively) when cultivated under severe salt stress, indicating that this is the most salt-tolerant variety amongst those tested. The most abundant phenolic compound recorded was ellagic acid, and the phenolic compounds that showed the greatest increases in concentration due to salt stress were p-coumaric acid (87% in the Isfahan variety) and chlorogenic acid (142% in the Mahallat variety). Salt stress was also shown to decrease the production of diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in all varieties. The highest concentration of DPPH (133%) was recorded in the Shiraz 1 variety, grown under conditions of severe salt stress. Salt stress also increased the mucilage content present in the petals, leaves, and seeds of some of the selected varieties. These data suggest that the selection of salt-tolerant varieties of hollyhock for direct cultivation or for use in future breeding programs is feasible.
    • Why engaging young people in heritage is key to levelling up

      Blamire, Joshua; Elkington, Rob (Archives & Records Association, 2023-07-03)
    • The effect of dose, settling time, shelf life, storage temperature and extractant on Moringa oleifera Lam. protein coagulation efficiency

      Shah, Ahsan; Arjunan, Arun; Manning, Georgina; Zakharova, Julia; Andraulaki, Ioanna; Batool, Maryam (Elsevier, 2024-01-17)
      The study explores green chemistry to purify drinking water using Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam. seeds. This is done by investigating the coagulation efficiency of MO seed extracts for treating moderately turbid water. The research reveals the influence of various factors such as dose, settling time, shelf life, storage temperature, and extractant (water and 1 M NaCl solution) on the coagulation efficiency of MO Lam. protein. The MO seed protein extracts (MOPE) dissolved in tap water, and 1 M NaCl solution was characterised for their performance at ambient temperature and 4 ℃. Within 3 h of MOPE treatment, the turbidity reduced by 90–93 % without significantly altering pH and total dissolved solids (TDS) or electrical conductivity (EC) of the treated water samples. Although the dose rate was found to increase with the storage time, the optimum Moringa oleifera dose was 30–50 mg/l. Overall, the refrigerated MOPE in NaCl offered an extended shelf life, exhibiting good coagulation for up to 7 days compared to 3–4 days for the non-refrigerated variant.
    • Geometrically nonlinear coupled adjoint aerostructural optimization of natural-laminar-flow strut-braced wing

      Ma, Yiyuan; Abouhamzeh, Morteza; Elham, Ali (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2022-12-18)
      Novel aircraft concepts employing ultrahigh-aspect-ratio wings, such as the strut-braced wing (SBW) configuration, are promising ways to achieve the next-generation sustainable and fuel-efficient aviation goals. However, as the wing aspect ratio increases, the wing increasingly exhibits more flexibility, higher deformation, and geometrically nonlinear behavior that cannot be accurately simulated by conventional sizing methods and typical linear structural analysis models. This paper establishes a framework for SBW aircraft conceptual design, conceptual optimization, and aerostructural optimization. The presented aerostructural optimization method hasmedium-fidelity and physics-based features.Ageometrically nonlinear structural analysis solver and a quasi-three-dimensional aerodynamic solver are coupled for the aerostructural optimization of composite natural-laminar-flow SBW aircraft. A medium-range (MR)-SBWaircraft is initially designed and optimized in the conceptual design stage. A gradient-based aerostructural optimization is performed using the proposed tool for minimizing the fuel mass of the initially sized and optimized MR-SBW aircraft. The optimization results in a more than 10% reduction in fuel mass, a more than 8% reduction in aircraft maximum takeoff mass, and a more than 30% reduction in wing and strut structural weight by optimizing the wing box structure, the wing planform, and the airfoil shape while satisfying the constraints on structural failure, wing loading, and aileron effectiveness.
    • Prediction models for distortions and residual stresses in thermoset polymer laminates : An overview

      Abouhamzeh, Morteza; Sinke, Jos; Benedictus, Rinze; Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology (MDPI AG, 2019-10-11)
      This paper reviews predictive models developed for the development of residual stresses and shape distortions during the manufacturing of thermoset polymeric/composite materials. Different sources that produce residual stresses and shape changes in the laminated panels are described and reviewed. An overview is presented on the characterisation and predictions of the phenomena resulting in residual stresses. The focus will be on the models accounting for the parameters during the cure cycle of the thermoset composite materials published in the literature from 2005 until 2018. The material types covered here range from thermoset adhesives, full composites, and fibre metal laminates. Furthermore, selected works are reviewed on the reduction of the shape changes and residual stresses of composites and fibre metal laminates consisting of thermoset polymers.
    • Aerostructural optimization and comparative study of twin-fuselage and strut-braced-wing aircraft configurations

      Ma, Yiyuan; Abouhamzeh, Morteza; Elham, Ali; The University of Wolverhampton, Department of Engineering, Telford, U.K. (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2023-12-09)
      The ultrahigh-aspect-ratio wing (UHARW) concept is a promising configuration to achieve future sustainable aviation goals. Twin-fuselage (TF) and strut-braced-wing (SBW) configurations are characterized by smaller structural bending moments and shear forces in the wing and are promising concepts for realizing UHARW designs. This paper addresses the aerostructural optimization problem of TF and SBW configurations with UHARW by using a coupled adjoint aerostructural optimization tool, which is composed of a geometrically nonlinear structural solver and a quasi-three-dimensional natural laminar flow (NLF) aerodynamic solver. The optimization results show significant improvements in fuel efficiency and performance for the TF and SBW aircraft, with fuel mass reductions of 13 and 10%, respectively, compared to the corresponding baseline aircraft designed in the conceptual design phase. In comparison to the original reference aircraft A320neo, the optimized TF and SBW have 48 and 31% lower fuel weights, respectively. The NLF range of both upper and lower wing surfaces is expanded during optimization. The optimized SBW configuration has a wing aspect ratio of 26.01, while the optimized TF has a wing aspect ratio of 20.74, indicating that the SBW concept is more conducive to realizing UHARW design compared with the TF configuration studied in this work. The optimized TF aircraft has a lighter fuel weight and gross weight compared to the optimized SBW aircraft, which is because the TF aircraft has a lighter operational empty weight, including a lighter fuselage structural weight, landing gear weight, etc., whereas the top-level aircraft requirements are the same for both aircraft, including range, payload, and cruise Mach.
    • Viscoelastic modelling of fibre-reinforced thermoplastics in hygrothermal circumstances

      Abouhamzeh, Morteza; van Dijk, Yannick L.M.; Grätzl, Thomas (Springer Nature, 2022-09-12)
      Thermoplastics are favourable to the automotive industry due to their recycling possibility. Carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) are passed through the automotive paint shop. The imposed thermal loading presents a challenge to implementing economically feasible CFRTP in body structures. The present study provides a simulation approach to analyse the anisotropic viscoelastic deformation behaviour to assess this scenario. Validation experiments were conducted by optically measuring the out-of-plane displacement of dry and moisture-saturated specimens subjected to a simulated cathodic dip painting-dryer. Preliminary lay-up assessment for the automotive painting process is deemed possible due to the good agreement between simulation and experiments.