Now showing items 1-20 of 7133

    • Can social protection tackle emerging risks from climate change, and how? A framework and a critical review

      Costella, Cecilia; van Aalst, Maarten; Georgiadou, Yola; Slater, Rachel; Reilly, Rachel; McCord, Anna; Holmes, Rebecca; Ammoun, Jonathan; Barca, Valentina (Elsevier, 2023-03-21)
      Climate change is transforming the risks individuals and households face, with potentially profound socioeconomic consequences including increased poverty, inequality, and social instability. Social protection is a policy tool that governments have used to help individuals and households manage risks linked to income and livelihoods, and to achieve societal outcomes such as reducing poverty and inequality. Despite its potential as a policy response to climate change, the integration of social protection within the climate policy agenda is currently limited. While the concept of risk is key to both sectors, different understandings of the nature and scope of climate change impacts, their implications, and of the adequacy of social protection instruments to address them, contribute to the lack of policy and practice integration. Our goal is to bridge this cognitive gap by highlighting the potential of social protection as a policy response to climate change. Using a climate risk lens, we first explore how climate change drives risks that are within the realm of social protection, and their implications, including likely future trends in demand for social protection. Based on this analysis, we critically review existing arguments for what social protection can do and evidence of what it currently does to manage risks arising from climate change. From the analysis, a set of reconceptualised roles emerge for social protection to strategically contribute to climate resilient development.
    • Rhizosphere associated bacteria as bio fertilisers in herbicide treated alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

      Motamedi, Marzieh; Zahedi, Morteza; Karimmojeni, Hassan; Baldwin, Timothy; Motamedi, Hossien (Springer, 2023-03-24)
      Purpose: The objective of the current study was to identify native bacterial strains with potential to mitigate the abiotic stress, caused by the topical application of the herbicide imazethapyr, as well as promoting growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Methods: The initial investigation, involved the isolation of bacteria from the rhizosphere of field grown alfalfa, which were subsequently screened for their ability to fix nitrogen, synthesis auxin, solubilise phosphate and potassium, and the production of lipase, protease and cellulase enzymes, in addition to their tolerance to imazethapyr. Results: Among the selected isolates, Serratiarubidaea (A), Pseudomonasputida (B) and Serratia sp. (C) were found to have highest potential for these growth promoting traits. However, auxin production was only detected in S. rubidaea. In the second phase of the study, the effects of soil inoculation with bacterial species A, B and C and Sinorhizobium meliloti(R), on the growth and development of alfalfa were assessed in pot and field experiments. The results of these experiments, indicated that herbicide application decreased both crop yield and photosynthetic pigments. In most cases, the herbicide was shown to have less impact upon the growth of the inoculated plants compared to the control. However, increase of yield traits, photosynthetic pigments and microbial population only occurred in plants treated by AB, AR and ABR bacterial inoculations. Conclusions: Thus, alleviation of herbicide stress in conjunction with growth promotion has been achieved by using native rhizosphere-associated bacterial isolates. These findings open new avenues of research to develop potent biofertilizers, that are effective under herbicide stressed conditions.
    • Effects of pharmacological castration on endocrinological and chemical profiles in captive red and fallow deer

      Marliani, Giovanna; Gelli, Donatella; Bellinello, Enrica; Costantin, Roberto Samuel; Nicoloso, Sandro; Accorsi, Pier Attilio; Vaglio, Stefano (Taylor & Francis, 2023-12-31)
      In wildlife captive management, contraception is highly desirable due to inbreeding risk and needed control of intra- and inter-specific aggressions. Deer, for which surgical castration can cause abnormal growth of the antlers, are suitable candidates for pharmacological castration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pharmacological castration on the physiological patterns and volatile chemical profiles of two deer species. We placed a subcutaneous implant of deslorelin acetate (4.7 mg) on four male red deer (Cervus elaphus) and two male fallow deer (Dama dama) (N=6) living together in a mixed-sex and -species group housed at a wildlife rescue centre in Tuscany, Italy. We combined hormone measurements and chemical investigation of metatarsal scent-gland odour secretions to test whether pharmacological castration will influence the volatile chemical profile, potentially modifying the olfactory communication during the rutting season. We used radioimmunoassay technique to determine faecal and plasma testosterone as well as faecal cortisol levels, and solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyse the scent-gland odour secretions. We found that deer testosterone levels decreased after the subcutaneous deposition of the implant. However, castrated red deer exhibited more variability in testosterone concentrations throughout the study period compared to fallow deer, whose testosterone levels remained low after the implant. We detected a total of 124 (red deer) and 88 (fallow deer) volatile compounds in male scent-gland odour secretions, including naturally occurring ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, carboxylic acids, esters, volatile fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Odour richness, but not total abundance or ratios of compounds, changed with testosterone levels in red deer. In conclusion, our preliminary findings suggest that deslorelin acetate, causing a decrease of testosterone level and impacting the chemical profile of odour secretions, could work as a non-invasive contraception approach in human-managed populations of deer.
    • Association between maternal haemoglobin concentration and stillbirth: A cohort study among a multi-ethnic population in England

      Nair, Manisha; Churchill, David; Nelson-Piercy, Cathy; Stanworth, Simon J; Knight, Marian (Wiley, 2017-03-28)
      Introduction There have been many calls for action to reduce stillbirths including the need to understand the determinants. Low maternal haemoglobin concentrations have been explored as a risk factor for stillbirth and perinatal death, but evidence is weak. The objective of this work was to examine the association of maternal haemoglobin concentration with stillbirth and perinatal death in a multi-ethnic population in England. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using anonymised data from 14 001 women with singleton pregnancies ≥24 weeks of gestation giving birth in two hospitals in 2013–15. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to analyse associations between maternal haemoglobin at first visit and at 28 weeks with stillbirth and perinatal death, adjusting for 11 other risk factors. Results Almost half of the study population had anaemia at some point during their pregnancy. The risk of stillbirth and perinatal death decreased linearly per unit increase in haemoglobin concentration at first visit (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] stillbirth = 0.70, 95% CI 0.58–0.85; aOR perinatal death = 0.71, 95% CI 0.60–0.84) and at 28 weeks (aOR stillbirth = 0.83, 95% CI 0.62–1.11; aOR perinatal death = 0.86, 95% CI 0.67–1.12). Compared with women with normal haemoglobin concentrations, the risk of stillbirth and perinatal death was five-fold and three-fold higher in women with moderate-severe maternal anaemia at first visit and 28 weeks, respectively. Conclusion These findings are of clinical and public health importance. If the observed association is causal, iron supplementation during pregnancy could have an incremental benefit on reducing the risk of stillbirth and perinatal death for all women.
    • Maternal iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy: Lessons from a national audit

      Churchill, David; Ali, Hind; Moussa, Mahmoud; Donohue, Ciara; Pavord, Sue; Robinson, Susan; Cheshire, Katherine; Wilson, Paul; Grant-Casey, John; Stanworth, Simon J; et al. (Wiley, 2022-08-03)
      We describe the management and the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) during pregnancy by comparison to standards. A cross-sectional national cohort study of women who had given birth six weeks prior to data collection was conducted at maternity units in the UK and Ireland. Participating centres collected data from 10 consecutive pregnant women. Analysis was descriptive to define the prevalence of IDA in pregnancy and the puerperium, and to compare the outcomes in women who had IDA with women who did not have anaemia anytime during pregnancy. Eighty-six maternity units contributed data on 860 pregnancies and births. The overall prevalence of IDA during pregnancy was 30.4% and in the puerperium 20%. Anaemic women were more likely to be from ethnic minorities, odds ratio 2.23 (1.50, 3.32). Adherence to national guidance was suboptimal, and the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy remains very high. There is pressing need to explore barriers to early identification and effective management of iron deficiency. IDA should be considered a major public health problem in the UK.
    • Frailty subgroup analysis of isatuximab with pomalidomide and dexamethasone in a UK-wide real-world cohort of relapsed myeloma patients

      Djebbari, Faouzi; Rampotas, Alexandros; Vallance, Grant; Panitsas, Fotios; Basker, Nanda; Sangha, Gina; Salhan, Beena; Karim, Farheen; Al-Kaisi, Firas; Gudger, Amy; et al. (Wiley, 2023-01-31)
    • Investigating Palestinian in-service teachers’ beliefs about the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into teaching English

      Qaddumi, Husam; Smith, Matt; Masd, Khaled; Bakeer, Aida; Abu-Ulbeh, Waheeb (Springer, 2023-03-15)
      The purpose of this study was to look into how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is used in teaching English language from the point-of-view of English language teachers in Palestine. A quantitative approach was employed to collect data from 780 language school teachers from 260 schools who participated in a course project utilizing ICT in English as a Foreign Language teaching (TEFL). These participants responded to a questionnaire survey about the effects of the Covid-19 epidemic on language education and how they dealt with these. We statistically analysed the responses through four domains: the use of ICT in students’ lives; the use of ICT in education generally; the use of ICT to support learning and teaching in EFL; and teachers’ perceived skills for using ICT in education. Results indicated that English language teachers in Palestinian public schools believed that ICT has clear potential to support the learning of English, but that there remain barriers to its implementation. Teachers feel equipped to use ICT but would like to see a greater emphasis on training in order to maximise their teaching.
    • Remote maintenance cardiac rehabilitation (MAINTAIN): A protocol for a randomised feasibility study

      Denton, Francesca; Waddell, Alexander; Kite, Chris; Hesketh, Katie; Atkinson, Lou; Cocks, Matthew; Jones, Helen; Randeva, Harpal S.; Davenport, Nathan; Powell, Richard; et al. (SAGE, 2023-02-15)
      Background: Long-term adherence to exercise is often poor for people with coronary heart disease (CHD) who have completed supervised, centre-based cardiac rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of a remotely prescribed, delivered and monitored cardiac rehabilitation intervention using a wearable device to support long-term adherence to exercise and physical activity during maintenance of cardiac rehabilitation. Methods: After completing cardiac rehabilitation, 30 participants with CHD, will be randomised (1:1) to an intervention (n = 15) or a usual care group (n = 15) in a 12-month feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT). The intervention will comprise of an exercise consultation, personalised exercise prescription delivered via a wearable activity monitor using biometric feedback, regular monitoring via check-ins, and feedback text-messages for 6-months. Participants will be assessed at baseline (following completion of cardiac rehabilitation) and at three-, six-, and 12-months post-randomisation. The primary outcome will be feasibility, including assessment of eligibility, recruitment, adherence, and acceptability. Secondary outcomes will include exercise capacity, physical activity behaviours, cardiovascular disease risk and quality of life. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted at three-, six-, and 12-months post-randomisation (and with those who drop-out) to explore the acceptability of the study intervention and procedures. A questionnaire will be offered to those who decline participation. Discussion: The MAINTAIN study will evaluate the feasibility of conducting a future definitive multi-centre RCT testing a remotely prescribed and monitored long-term mHealth maintenance exercise programme, versus usual care, for people with CHD who have completed cardiac rehabilitation. Trial registration number:, NCT05292287. Registered on 22/03/2022
    • Why are co-authored academic articles more cited: Higher quality or larger audience?

      Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan; Abdoli, Mahshid; Stuart, Emma; Makita, Meiko; Wilson, Paul; Levitt, Jonathan (Wiley, 2023-03-23)
      Collaboration is encouraged because it is believed to improve academic research, supported by indirect evidence in the form of more co-authored articles being more cited. Nevertheless, this might not reflect quality but increased self-citations or the “audience effect”: citations from increased awareness through multiple author networks. We address this with the first science wide investigation into whether author numbers associate with journal article quality, using expert peer quality judgements for 122,331 articles from the 2014-20 UK national assessment. Spearman correlations between authors numbers and quality scores show moderately strong positive associations (0.2-0.4) in the health, life, and physical sciences, but weak or no positive associations in engineering and social sciences, with weak negative/positive or no association in various arts and humanities, and a possible negative association for decision sciences. This gives the first systematic evidence that greater numbers of authors associates with higher quality journal articles in the majority of academia outside the arts and humanities, at least for the UK. Positive associations between team size and citation counts in areas with little association between team size and quality also show that audience effects or other non-quality factors account for the higher citation rates of co-authored articles in some fields.
    • Brief emotional eating scale: A multinational study of factor structure, validity, and invariance

      Ruiz, Montse C.; Devonport, Tracey; Chen-Wilson, Chao-Hwa (Josephine); Nicholls, Wendy; Cagas, Jonathan Y.; Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; Choi, Youngjun; Gan, Yiqun; Robazza, Claudio (Elsevier, 2023-03-17)
      Emotional eating or the tendency to eat in response to emotional states can be assessed using self-report measures. The Emotional Eating Scale-II is a commonly used and reliable instrument that measures the desire to eat in response to a range of unpleasant and pleasant emotions. The current study aimed to corroborate the validity of the EES-II and expand its utility by investigating its dimensionality and testing its measurement invariance in samples from English-speaking and non-English-speaking countries. Convergent and predictive validity in respect of food craving, eating, and health indicators were also examined. This cross-national study included a total of 2485 adult participants recruited from Finland, North America, Philippines, United Kingdom, China, Italy, Spain, and South Korea, who completed the EES-II in six different languages. Factor analyses supported a four-factor structure including valence (pleasant, unpleasant) and activation (high, low) for a 12-item English version and slightly modified non-English adaptations. The model exhibited good fit in all samples, and convergent validity was demonstrated. Full invariance of factor loadings and partial invariance of factor loading, intercepts, and error variances was established across samples for the English-language version. Structural equation models revealed that high activation (pleasant and unpleasant) states predicted food cravings and reported eating. Overall findings across multiple samples and countries supported the factorial structure, reliability, invariance, and validity of the resulting Brief Emotional Eating Scale (BEES). Keywords: brief measure, cross-cultural, factor analysis, food craving, self-report, reliability
    • Impact of fish consumption on all-cause mortality in older people with and without dementia: a community-based cohort study

      Bakre, Aishat; Chen, Anthony; Tao, Xuguang; Hou, Jian; Yao, Yuyou; Nevill, Alan M.; Tang, James Jie; Rohrmann, Sabine; Ni, Jindong; Hu, Zhi; et al. (Springer, 2022-06-24)
      Background: Increased fish consumption reduces the risk of dementia. However, it is unknown whether fish consumption reduced all-cause mortality in people with dementia. The purpose of the study is to investigate the association of fish consumption with all-cause mortality in older people with dementia versus those without dementia. Methods: Using a standard method of the Geriatric Mental State, we interviewed 4165 participants aged ≥ 60 years who were randomly recruited from five provinces in China during 2007–2009 to collect the baseline data of socio-demography, disease risk factors, histories of disease, and details of dietary intakes, and diagnosed dementia (n = 406). They were followed up for vital status until 2012. Results: The cohort follow-up documented 329 deaths; 61 were in participants with dementia (55.3 per 1000 person-years) and 224 were those without dementia (22.3). In all participants, the risk of all-cause mortality was reduced with fish intake at “ ≥ twice a week” (multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.34–0.96) and at “once a week or less” (0.79, 0.53–1.18) compared to “never eat” over the past two years. In participants without baseline dementia, the corresponding HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.57 (0.33–0.98) and 0.85 (0.55–1.31), while in participants with dementia were 1.36 (0.28–6.60) and 1.05 (0.30–3.66), respectively. Conclusion: This study reveals that consumption of fish in older age reduced all-cause mortality in older people without dementia, but not in people with dementia. Fish intake should be increased in older people in general, prior to the development of dementia in the hope of preventing dementia and prolonging life.
    • TEFL-ePAL: why, what, how... so what?

      Smith, Matt; Bakeer, Aida; Qaddumi, Husam (Unpublished, 2023-03-07)
    • Age-related disparities in modifiable risk factors for diabetes in adult populations

      Chen, Ruoling; Research Group of Population Health, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, WV1 1DT, UK. Electronic address: (Elsevier, 2021-09-07)
    • Patterns of adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptom trajectories in young adults: A longitudinal study of college students in China

      Li, Shuqin; Wang, Rui; Thomas, Erica; Jiang, Zhicheng; Jin, Zhengge; Li, Ruoyu; Qian, Yan; Song, Xianbing; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Shichen; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2022-07-25)
      Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) tend to cluster together in daily life, and most studies focus on the level of depression at certain points, but the dynamic process of depression is often neglected. Thus, research is urgently needed to explore the relationship between ACEs pattern and trajectory of depressive symptom levels at multiple time points in order to provides early targeted interventions to those who are most at risk. Objective: We aimed to explore patterns of ACEs, including types and timing, associated with depression trajectories in college students. Methods: A school-based health survey was used to collect data as part of a longitudinal study in two medical college in Anhui province, China. Questionnaires were issued to 3,662 participants aged 17–22 and recorded details of ACEs (types and timing) and depression. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify “patterns” of ACEs type and timing. Depressive symptom trajectories employed latent class growth analysis (LCGA). Multiple logistic regressions were employed to evaluate the relationships between ACEs patterns and depressive symptom trajectories. Results: We identified five ACEs patterns: “High neglect/emotional abuse/community violence,” “High neglect/emotional abuse,” “High neglect/family dysfunction,” “High neglect,” “Low ACEs.” We traced three depression trajectories: “High depressive symptom” “Moderate depressive symptom,” “Low depressive symptom.” “High neglect/emotional abuse/community violence,” “High neglect/emotional abuse” and “High neglect/family dysfunction” demonstrated a high risk for “High depressive symptom” and “Moderate depressive symptom.” “High neglect” showed a high risk for “Moderate depressive symptom” but not for “High depressive symptom” (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings address the need for a comprehensive consideration of exposure to childhood adversity associated with the risk of depression in young adults through identifying more problematic ACEs patterns amongst exposed children.
    • Cohort profile: Anhui Maternal-Child Health Study in China

      Yin, Jiaqian; Cao, Yunxia; Liang, Chunmei; Peng, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Weiju; Khutan, Ranjit; Tao, Fangbiao; Chen, Ruoling; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. (BMJ, 2022-06-28)
      Purpose The Anhui Maternal-Child Health Study (AMCHS) aims to examine determinants of reproduction, pregnancy and postpartum maternal and child health outcomes in Chinese women who received assisted reproductive technology (ART). Study design and participants AMCHS is an ongoing cohort study starting from May 2017. AMCHS recruits participants from all couples who sought ART treatment in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China. The participants are interviewed to document baseline sociodemography, lifestyles, dietary intake and environmental exposure. Their clinical characteristics are obtained from hospital records. Samples of blood, follicular fluid and semen are collected at the clinic. Participants receive a standard long pituitary downregulation or a short protocol with an antagonist for the treatment. They are followed up from preconception to delivery, or discontinuation of ART treatment. Details of their children's health are documented through a questionnaire focusing on developmental status and anthropometry measurement. Findings to date Until April 2021, AMCHS had recruited 2042 couples in the study. 111 women withdrew from the study and 19 failed to retrieve oocytes. Among the 1475 confirmed pregnancies, 146 had miscarriages or terminated their pregnancies, 9 had stillbirths and 263 were ongoing pregnancies. The implantation failure increased with maternal age; adjusted OR was 1.43 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.77) in the age of 31-35 years, 1.97 (95% CI 1.46 to 2.66) in 35-39 years and 6.52 (95% CI 3.35 to 12.68) in ≥40 years compared with those aged 20-30 years. Among the 1057 couples with successful ART who were followed up for delivering babies, 576 had their children examined at age 30-42 days, 459 at 6 months and 375 at 12 months. Future plans The AMCHS will identify comprehensive risk factors for poor ART outcomes and explore potential interaction effects of multiple factors including sociopsychological aspects of environmental exposure, dietary intake and genetics on maternal and child health.
    • Association of air pollution with dementia: a systematic review with meta-analysis including new cohort data from China

      Tang, Jie; Chen, Anthony; He, Fan; Shipley, Martin; Nevill, Alan M.; Coe, Hugh; Hu, Zhi; Zhang, Tao; Kan, Haidong; Brunner, Eric John; et al. (Elsevier, 2023-02-20)
      It remains unclear whether a total exposure to air pollution (AP) is associated with an increased risk of dementia. Little is known on the association in low- and middle-income countries. Two cohort studies in China (in Anhui cohort 1402 older adults aged ≥ 60 followed up for 10 years; in Zhejiang cohort 6115 older adults followed up for 5 years) were conducted to examine particulate matter - PM<sub>2.5</sub> associated with all dementia and air quality index (AQI) with Alzheimer's disease, respectively. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was performed following worldwide literature searched until May 20, 2020 to identify 15 population-based cohort studies examining the association of AP with dementia (or any specific type of dementia) through PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, CINHAL, and CNKI. The cohort studies in China showed a significantly increased relative risk (RR) of dementia in relation to AP exposure; in Anhui cohort the adjusted RR was 2.14 (95% CI 1.00-4.56) in people with PM<sub>2.5</sub> exposure at ≥ 64.5 μg/m<sup>3</sup> versus <63.5 μg/m<sup>3</sup> and in Zhejiang cohort the adjusted RR was 2.28 (1.07-4.87) in AQI>90 versus ≤ 80. The systematic review revealed that all 15 studies were undertaken in high income countries/regions, with inconsistent findings. While they had reasonably good overall quality of studies, seven studies did not adjust smoking in analysis and 13 did not account for depression. Pooling all eligible data demonstrated that dementia risk increased with the total AP exposure (1.13, 1.08-1.19). Data analysis of air pollutants showed that the RR significantly increased with PM<sub>2.5</sub> (1.06, 1.03-1.10 in 2nd tertile exposure; 1.13, 1.07-1.19 in 3rd tertile versus 1st tertile), PM<sub>10</sub> (1.05, 0.86-1.29; 1.62, 0.60-4.36), carbon monoxide (1.69, 0.72-3.93; 1.52, 1.35-1.71), nitrogen dioxide (1.06, 1.03-1.09; 1.18, 1.10-1.28) and nitrogen oxides (1.09, 1.04-1.15; 1.26, 1.13-1.41), but not ozone. Controlling air pollution and targeting on specific pollutants would reduce dementia globally.
    • Associations of depressive and anxiety symptoms with non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal attempt among Chinese adolescents: The mediation role of sleep quality

      Jiao, Ting; Guo, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Yi; Li, Yanqi; Xie, Xinyi; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ruoling; Yu, Yizhen; Tang, Jie; Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. (Frontiers Media, 2022-12-22)
      Background: Associations of depressive and anxiety symptoms with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA) are not well understood. We aimed to examine these associations among Chinese adolescents, and whether any potential association is mediated through sleep quality. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,771 (994 boys [56.1%] and 777 girls [43.9%], mean [SD] age was 12.9 [0.6] years) adolescents who participated in the baseline survey of the Chinese Adolescent Health Growth Cohort (CAHGC) study. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, NSSI, SA and sleep quality were measured by validated questionnaire. Logistic regression models were employed to estimate the associations of depression and anxiety with NSSI and SA. Mediation analyses were conducted to explore the mediate effect of sleep quality. Results: The 12-month prevalence of NSSI and SA was 17.1 and 8.3%, respectively. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with NSSI (the adjusted odds ratio [aOR] was 1.89 [95% CI 1.34–2.65] for depressive symptoms and 2.84 [95% CI 2.05–3.94] for anxiety symptoms) and SA (the aOR was 3.20 [95% CI 2.03–5.05] for depressive symptoms and 2.98 [95% CI 1.84–4.84] for anxiety symptoms). No significant gender differences were found in the associations. The mediation proportion of sleep quality on the association of depressive and anxiety symptoms with NSSI, as well as depressive and anxiety symptoms with SA were 21.1, 13.9, 13.6, and 14.7, respectively. Conclusion: Independent associations of depressive and anxiety symptoms with NSSI and SA were observed in Chinese adolescents, and there were no significant gender differences in the associations. Moreover, these associations were partially mediated through sleep quality. Targeted interventions for adolescents’ NSSI and SA should focus on those who have depressive and anxiety symptoms, and poor sleep quality.
    • Hallucinations as a risk marker for suicidal behaviour in individuals with a history of sexual assault: a general population study with instant replication

      Yates, Kathryn; Lang, Ulla; Peters, Evyn M.; Wigman, Johanna T.W.; Boyda, David; McNicholas, Fiona; Cannon, Mary; Alderson-Day, Ben; Bloomfield, Michael; Ramsay, Hugh; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2022-06-14)
      Background Research has shown a strong relationship between hallucinations and suicidal behaviour in general population samples. Whether hallucinations also index suicidal behaviour risk in groups at elevated risk of suicidal behaviour, namely in individuals with a sexual assault history, remains to be seen. Aims We assessed whether hallucinations were markers of risk for suicidal behaviour among individuals with a sexual assault history. Methods Using the cross-sectional 2007 (N = 7403) and 2014 (N = 7546) Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, we assessed for an interaction between sexual assault and hallucinations in terms of the odds of suicide attempt, as well as directly comparing the prevalence of suicide attempt in individuals with a sexual assault history with v. without hallucinations. Results Individuals with a sexual assault history had increased odds of hallucinations and suicide attempt compared to individuals without a sexual assault history in both samples. There was a significant interaction between sexual assault and hallucinations in terms of the odds of suicide attempt. In total, 14–19% of individuals with a sexual assault history who did not report hallucinations had one or more suicide attempt. This increased to 33–52% of individuals with a sexual assault history who did report hallucinations (2007, aOR = 2.85, 1.71–4.75; 2014, aOR = 4.52, 2.78–7.35). Conclusions Hallucinations are a risk marker for suicide attempt even among individuals with an elevated risk of suicidal behaviour, specifically individuals with a sexual assault history. This finding highlights the clinical significance of hallucinations with regard to suicidal behaviour risk, even among high-risk populations.
    • Protocol for a scoping review on the development of policy, guidelines and protocols within emergency medical services

      Renshaw, John; Halter, Mary; Quinn, Tom; Kingston University and St George's, University of London; University of Wolverhampton ORCID iD: (College of Paramedics, 2022-03-01)
      Introduction: Emergency medical services (EMS) use a combination of policy, clinical practice guidelines and protocols to set out their expectations for service delivery and to inform patient care. While these are integral to how EMS now operate, relatively little is known about how they are developed, or the processes involved. Therefore, the aim of this scoping review is to understand what is known in the literature about the development of policy, guidelines and protocols within EMS. Methods: This scoping review will follow the Arksey and O’Malley (2005) methodological framework for scoping reviews. A search strategy has been developed using index term definitions, building from authors’ knowledge of the field. The following electronic databases will be searched from 2002 to 2021 for all types of publication: CINAHL, Medline, Academic Search Complete and PsycINFO, EMBASE, Nursing and Allied Health, the Cochrane library, NICE Evidence, Scopus, OpenGrey, EThOS, Google Scholar, Google search and key EMS journal websites. The results will be downloaded using EndNoteX9 reference management software and duplicates will be removed. Titles and abstracts of the results will be independently screened for their relevance to the research question, and the full text of each selected publication will be assessed against pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine its eligibility. The reference list and forward citations will be searched for articles meeting the eligibility criteria. A second researcher will independently assess a 10% sample of results to allow for validation of this assessment. Data will be extracted and charted on the characteristics of the publications and the knowledge they contribute on the development of policy, guidelines or protocols. Accompanying narratives will be presented to identify themes and gaps in the available evidence. A critical appraisal will be undertaken of the included publications, where empirical research is presented.