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dc.contributor.authorSudhakaran, Gargy
dc.contributor.authorPrabhakaran, Abhinesh
dc.contributor.authorBooth, Colin
dc.contributor.authorAbbey, Samuel
dc.contributor.authorMahamadu, Abdul–Majeed
dc.contributor.authorGeorgakis, Panagiotis
dc.contributor.authorPohle, Maria
dc.identifier.citationSudhakaran, G., Prabhakaran, A., Booth, C., Abbey, S., Mahamadu, A.-M., Georgakis, P. and Pohle, M. (2024), "Stepping into safety: a systematic review of extended reality technology applications in enhancing vulnerable road user safety", Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.
dc.descriptionThis is an accepted manuscript of an article published by Emerald in Smart and Sustainable Built Environment on 04/07/2024, available online: The accepted version of the publication may differ from the final published version.en
dc.description.abstractPurpose In alignment with the European Union’s Vision Zero initiative to eliminate road fatalities by 2050, leveraging technological advancements becomes crucial for addressing the challenges of vulnerable road users (VRUs), and for mitigating the impact of human error. Despite increasing scholarly interest in applications of extended reality (XR), a research gap persists, particularly in the role of XR in transportation safety. Therefore, the aim of the study was to fill this gap through a systematic literature review to evaluate comprehensively the potential scope and practical applicability of XR technologies in enhancing the safety of VRUs. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review was undertaken, following PRISMA guidelines meticulously, in which 80 relevant articles from databases, such as Scopus and Science Direct, were identified and analysed. Findings The results of the analysis revealed the potential of XR beyond pedestrians and cyclists, and highlighted a lack of research about the impact of XR with regard to the personal traits or abilities of VRUs. The results of a thorough analysis confirmed the potential of XR as a promising solution for an approach to collaborative co-creation in addressing the safety challenges of VRUs. In addition, the integration of eye-tracking with virtual reality emerged as a promising innovation for enhancing the safety of vulnerable road users. Research limitations/implications Theoretical implications include enhancing the understanding of applications of XR in VRUs’ safety and providing insights into future research possibilities and methodological approaches. Valuable insights into search strategies and inclusion-exclusion criteria can guide future research methodologies. Practical implications Practically, the findings from the study offer insights to assist urban planners and transportation authorities in incorporating XR technologies effectively for VRUs safety. Identifying areas for further development of XR technology could inspire innovation and investment in solutions designed to meet the safety needs of VRUs, such as enhanced visualisation tools and immersive training simulations. Originality/value The findings of previous research underscore the vast potential of XR technologies within the built environment, yet their utilisation remains limited in the urban transport sector. The intricacies of urban traffic scenarios pose significant challenges for VRUs, making participation in mobility studies hazardous. Hence, it is crucial to explore the scope of emerging technologies in addressing VRUs issues as a pre-requisite for establishing comprehensive safety measures.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThe SOTERIA project has received funding from the European Commissions’ Horizon Europe Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No 101077433, as well as by UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) under the UK government’s Horizon Europe funding guarantee [Grant Nos: 10052969, 10058247, 10059948, and 10064506] to whom all partner organisations and authors express their sincere gratitude.en
dc.subjectsystematic reviewen
dc.subjectroad safetyen
dc.subjectextended realityen
dc.subjectVRU safety enhancementen
dc.subjectvulnerable road useren
dc.titleStepping into safety: a systematic review of extended reality technology applications in enhancing vulnerable road user safetyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.departmentSchool of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UKen
dc.identifier.journalSmart and Sustainable Built Environmenten
rioxxterms.funderEuropean Union’s Horizon Europeen
dc.description.versionPublished online

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