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dc.contributor.advisorGalbraith, Niall
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Órla
dc.identifier.citationSmith, Ó. (2023) An investigation into the impact of visual imagery ability on the development and experience of mindfulness. University of Wolverhampton.
dc.descriptionA thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of Wolverhampton for the award of Doctorate in Counselling Psychology.en
dc.description.abstractMindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have an established evidence base demonstrating positive outcomes across biopsychosocial domains. One variable which may impact engagement with MBIs is that of visual imagery ability (VVIQ), the ability to create a mental image of object that is not in sight. This study aimed to explore the impact of individual differences in visual imagery ability on the experience and development of mindfulness. The study used a mixed method, randomised, experimental design and was delivered remotely. A sample size of 77 was achieved, comprising of undergraduate psychology students and the general public. The aim of the quantitative element was two-fold. Firstly, to examine whether an interaction between visual imagery ability (low, high) and mode of mindfulness (virtual environment, audio, video) would impact on state mindfulness scores. Secondly, it looked to examine whether such an interaction would impact on participants’ views of acceptability, inclination towards future use, and enjoyment of the mindfulness task undertaken. The aim of the qualitative element was to develop themes contrasting and comparing the participants’ subjective experience of the mindfulness tasks. Thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data to develop common themes that characterise participant experience. This produced two overarching themes, ‘being here versus being there’ and ‘positive benefits’. The first had four subthemes: memory, technology, distractions, and sensory elements. ‘Positive benefits’ contained two subthemes: future practice and change in state. The quantitative study data were analysed with a mixed ANOVA and MANOVA. These results indicate a significant interaction between VVIQ and the method of delivery of a mindfulness task although this did not occur in the predicted way. For those high in VVIQ optimal results were found within an audio modality, those low in VVIQ did better within a video only modality. No significant difference was found on measures of enjoyment, acceptability, or willingness to engage in future practice. The qualitative data supported these findings. There was a main effect of time with a significant increase in mindfulness across all conditions pre to post intervention. These results have been explored within the current evidence base and discussed with regard to ideas for future research. Implications for counselling psychology practice include suggestions about how the current study might encourage wider accessibility to mindfulness-based interventions through their individualisation based on VVIQ. This individualisation may benefit Counselling Psychologists with lower visual imagery ability who facilitate mindfulness-based interventions within their work.en
dc.publisherUniversity of Wolverhamptonen
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectvisual imagery abilityen
dc.subjectvirtual environmentsen
dc.titleAn investigation into the impact of visual imagery ability on the development and experience of mindfulnessen
dc.typeThesis or dissertationen
dc.contributor.departmentSchool of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing
dc.type.qualificationnameProfessional doctorate

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International