Now showing items 1-20 of 1883

    • Postdigital dupery and its epistemic vices

      MacKenzie, Alison; Rose, Jennifer; Bhatt, Ibrar; Hayes, Sarah L (Springer, 2022-09-21)
      In early 2020, Alison MacKenzie and Ibrar Bhatt guest edited the Special Issue of Postdigital Science and Education, ‘Lies, Bullshit and Fake News Online: Should We Be Worried?’ (MacKenzie and Bhatt 2020), and in early 2021, Alison MacKenzie, Jennifer Rose, and Ibrar Bhatt published their edited book, The Epistemology of Deceit in a Postdigital Era: Dupery by Design (MacKenzie et al. 2021b), in Postdigital Science and Education book series.Footnote 1 To continue this important work, Sarah Hayes emailed Alison, Jennifer, and Ibrar to arrange this conversation. Alison and Ibrar met with Sarah online in May 2021 and talked for two hours, with Jennifer providing her insights via email, to be blended into the dialogue.
    • The postdigital-biodigital revolution

      Means, Alexander; Jandrić, Petar; Sojot, Amy; Ford, Derek R.; Peters, Michael A.; Hayes, Sarah L (Springer, 2022-09-16)
    • SP2.2.4 Structured prehabilitation reduces physical deconditioning and improves emotional and physical well-being during neo-adjuvant chemotherapy prior to surgery for oesophageal cancer

      Knight, William; Zylstra, Janine; White, Greg; Lane, Andrew; Browning, Mike; Davies, Andrew (British Journal of Surgery Society/ Oxford University Press, 2022-08-09)
    • Revisiting the self-confidence and sport performance relationship: A systematic review with meta-analysis

      Lochbaum, Marc; Sherburn, Mackenzie; Sisneros, Cassandra; Cooper, Sydney; Lane, Andrew; Terry, Peter C.; Education Academy, Vytautas Magnus University, 44248 Kaunas, Lithuania. (MDPI, 2022-05-24)
      Self-confidence is a common research topic, and most applied textbooks include interventions designed to enhance athlete confidence. Our purpose was to quantify the self-confidence and sport performance literature using meta-analytic techniques. We also examined potential risk of bias indicators, and the moderation effects of study quality, sport characteristics, timing of confidence measurement, and individual differences among participants. Following a review of two past meta-analyses, a systematic search of APA PsycArticles, ERIC, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsychINFO, and SPORTDiscus within the EBSCOhost platform, and some hand searching, 41 articles published between 1986 and 2020 met the inclusion criteria. Collectively, the included studies investigated 3711 athletes from 15 countries across 24 sports. The overall random effects estimate of the relationship (expressed as r) between self-confidence and performance was 0.25 (95% CI 0.19, 0.30), with little evidence of publication bias. The summed total risk of the individual study bias score did not moderate the confidence–performance relationship, whereas significant moderator effects emerged for individual sports (0.29) compared with team sports (0.14), objective (0.29) compared to subjective (0.14) performance measures, and 100% male (0.35) compared to 100% female (0.07) samples. In conclusion, the confidence–performance relationship is small in magnitude, nearly free of bias, and moderated by sport type, performance objectivity, and athlete sex.
    • Effects of reflection to improve goal-directed self-talk on endurance performance

      Latinjak, Alexander T.; de las Heras, Bernat; Sacot, Arnau; Fernandez, David; Robinson, Daniel; Lane, Andrew; Department of Science and Technology, University of Suffolk, IP3 0FS Ipswich, UK. a.latinjak@uos.ac.uk. (MDPI, 2018-06-01)
      We investigated the effects of an intervention that encouraged reflection on organic self-talk used during endurance performance. Using an experimental design, we compared the effects of enhancing metacognitive skills by (a) planning and (b) reviewing and evaluating goal-directed self-talk. Participants completed three time-to-exhaustion cycling task trials in which we hypothesized that the intervention group would perform significantly better than the control group. Further, we expected a reduction in perceived exertion for a given workload among participants following a self-talk intervention. Thirty-four participants completed a time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer test, after which participants were randomly divided into an intervention and control group. The intervention group performed reflection tasks on performance in the time-to-exhaustion test. Participants completed two further time-to-exhaustion tests. Repeated measures analyses of covariance to test whether the intervention group performed for longer indicated no significant difference in time to exhaustion (p = 0.157). Perceived exertion rates were 2.42% higher in the intervention compared to the control group (p = 0.025). In conclusion, in the intervention group, goal-directed self-talk led to increased sensitisation to perceived exertion, and participants chose to stop exercising at this point rather than repeat implementation of self-talk statements and persist for longer.
    • Using audio-mixing software to facilitate remote data collection of conversational interactions

      Wilsdon, Luke; Uther, Maria; Chadwick, Darren; Fullwood, Chris (ScienceOpen, 2022-07-12)
      This paper discusses the issues with using open source, audio-mixing technology to facilitate remote data collection of speech samples, which was needed specifically during the COVID-19 pandemic, but will also be beneficial in other contexts, e.g., to save on time and costs associated with travelling. We discuss practical constraints associated with remote data collection using this technology. We also consider issues around ethics, security, and data quality in using technology to record conversational interactions. We provide the example of using common tools such as MS Teams and smartphones and two types of software to conduct interviews to collect speech data as a proof-of-concept and offer further directions for research.
    • Palestinian EFL students' perceptions of using Edmodo in developing their writing skills

      Itmeizeh, Mahmoud; Khalil, Zeiadee; Smith, Matt (Palestine Ahliya University, 2022-09-03)
      The present study explored Palestinian EFL students’ perceptions towards the use of Edmodo in developing their writing skills at Palestine Ahliya University, Bethlehem. Sixteen sophomore English major students taking the Oral Communication II course in the Spring Semester 2019 -2020 served as the participants of the study. The researchers adopted a mixed methodological approach. A questionnaire consisting of 27 items was adapted by the researchers for the purpose of eliciting students’ perceptions towards the use of Edmodo in developing their writing skills and the barriers they faced while using the platform. In addition, in-depth qualitative data was gathered from students' written responses to an end-of-course assignment posted on Edmodo. In general, the results of the study revealed that students had positive perceptions towards using Edmodo in terms of writing development and collaborative learning. However, it is worth noting that several participants reflected negative responses which resulted from the technological difficulties and their limited experiences with Edmodo.
    • "You have to know how to live with it without getting to the addiction part": British young adult experiences of smartphone over-reliance and disconnectivity

      Conroy, Dominic; Chadwick, Darren; Fullwood, Chris; Lloyd, Joanne (American Psychological Association, 2022-09-01)
      Smartphone usage offers undeniable upsides (e.g. social connectivity and increased productivity). However, the ever-expanding utilities of smartphones have prompted debate around device over-reliance, which has prompted interest in ‘digital detox’, ‘technology pushback’ and ‘disconnectivity’. We report an in-depth qualitative exploration of perceptions of smartphone over-reliance and experiences of attempting to modify usage (i.e., efforts to disconnect) among fourteen 18-30-year-old university students. Semi-structured interview transcripts were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). A first theme – ‘It’s like an addiction’ – concerned the drift from valuing the convenience/productivity afforded by smartphones into feeling over-reliant on devices. Over-reliance could hinder meeting basic needs, limit time for valued pastimes and could unsettle feelings of agency. A second theme – ‘It’s difficult to maintain abstinence’ - concerned barriers to modification efforts, including fearing possible social repercussions, transferring attention to other Internet-affording devices, and self-deception. This article highlights how modifying habitual usage patterns may be challenging and encourages debate around how ‘smartphone over-reliance’ could be framed.
    • A2 milk enhances dynamic muscle function following repeated sprint exercise, a possible ergogenic aid for a1-protein intolerant athletes?

      Kirk, Ben; Mitchell, Jade; Jackson, Matthew; Amirabdollahian, Farzad; Alizadehkhaiyat, Omid; Clifford, Tom; School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park, Liverpool L16 9JD, UK. kirkb@hope.ac.uk. (MDPI, 2017-01-28)
      Hyperaminoacidemia following ingestion of cows-milk may stimulate muscle anabolism and attenuate exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). However, as dairy-intolerant athletes do not obtain the reported benefits from milk-based products, A2 milk may offer a suitable alternative as it lacks the A1-protein. This study aimed to determine the effect of A2 milk on recovery from a sports-specific muscle damage model. Twenty-one male team sport players were allocated to three independent groups: A2 milk (n = 7), regular milk (n = 7), and placebo (PLA) (n = 7). Immediately following muscle-damaging exercise, participants consumed either A2 milk, regular milk or PLA (500 mL each). Visual analogue scale (muscle soreness), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), countermovement jump (CMJ) and 20-m sprint were measured prior to and 24, 48, and 72 h post EIMD. At 48 h post-EIMD, CMJ and 20-m sprint recovered quicker in A2 (33.4 ± 6.6 and 3.3 ± 0.1, respectively) and regular milk (33.1 ± 7.1 and 3.3 ± 0.3, respectively) vs. PLA (29.2 ± 3.6 and 3.6 ± 0.3, respectively) (p < 0.05). Relative to baseline, decrements in 48 h CMJ and 20-m sprint were minimised in A2 (by 7.2 and 5.1%, respectively) and regular milk (by 6.3 and 5.2%, respectively) vs. PLA. There was a trend for milk treatments to attenuate decrements in MVIC, however statistical significance was not reached (p = 0.069). Milk treatments had no apparent effect on muscle soreness (p = 0.152). Following muscle-damaging exercise, ingestion of 500 mL of A2 or regular milk can limit decrements in dynamic muscle function in male athletes, thus hastening recovery and improving subsequent performance. The findings propose A2 milk as an ergogenic aid following EIMD, and may offer an alternative to athletes intolerant to the A1 protein.
    • Anthropometric indicators of adiposity related to body weight and body shape as cardiometabolic risk predictors in British young adults: Superiority of waist-to-height ratio

      Amirabdollahian, Farzad; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park, Liverpool, UK. (Hindawi, 2018-11-01)
      Frequently reported poor dietary habits of young adults increase their risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Excess adiposity is the most established predictor of MetS, and numerous anthropometric measures have been proposed as proxy indicators of adiposity. We aimed to assess prevalence of MetS in young adult population and to make comparison between weight- and shape-oriented measures of adiposity to identify the best index in association with measured body fat and as a risk predictor for MetS. Healthy males and females aged 18-25 years from the Northwest of England were recruited using convenience sampling (<i>n</i>=550). As part of the assessment of the overall health of young adults, the biochemical variables and adiposity measures BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), new BMI, Body Adiposity Index (BAI), Clinica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator (CUN-BAE), and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) were assessed. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the proxy indices of adiposity and measured percentage body fat. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to investigate the relationship between cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors and proxy measures of adiposity. The discriminatory power of these measures for diagnosis of MetS was investigated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Body weight-related indicators of adiposity, particularly CUN-BAE, had stronger association with measured body fat compared with body shape-related indices. In relation with MetS, body shape-related indices, particularly elevated WC and WHtR, had stronger associations with CM risk compared with body weight-related measures. Amongst all indices, the best predictor for CM risk was WHtR, while ABSI had the weakest correlation with body fat, MetS, and CM risk. Indices directly associated with WC and specifically WHtR had greater diagnostic power in detection of CM risk in young adults.
    • Dietary intake and energy expenditure assessed during a pre-season period in elite Gaelic football players

      O'Brien, Luke; Collins, Kieran; Doran, Dominic; Khaiyat, Omid; Amirabdollahian, Farzad; School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park, Liverpool L16 9JD, UK. obrienl@hope.ac.uk. (MDPI, 2019-03-13)
      There is currently a lack of research into the energy demands and associated nutritional intakes of elite Gaelic football players during the pre-season period, which is a crucial time of year for physical development. The aim of the current study was to investigate the dietary intake and energy expenditure (EE) of elite Gaelic football players during a typical pre-season week. Over a seven-day period, which included four training days and three rest days, dietary intake (validated self-reported estimated food diary) and EE (Sensewear Pro armband) were recorded in 18 male players from a single elite inter-county Gaelic football team. Average energy intake (EI) (3283 ± 483 kcal) was significantly (p = 0.002) less than average EE (3743 ± 335 kcal), with a mean daily energy deficit of -460 ± 503 kcal. Training days elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. The mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.6 ± 0.7 g/kg/day, protein intake was 2.1 ± 0.5 g/kg/day, and fat intake was 1.6 ± 0.2 g/kg/day. These findings indicate that the dietary practices of the sampled players were inadequate to meet EE and CHO recommendations. Training days are of particular concern, with the players not altering energy and CHO intake to encounter increased energy demands. Education on nutritional strategies for elite Gaelic footballers should be considered in relation to training demands to avoid detriments to performance and health.
    • Exercise and dietary-protein as a countermeasure to skeletal muscle weakness: Liverpool Hope University - Sarcopenia Aging Trial (LHU-SAT)

      Kirk, Ben; Mooney, Kate; Amirabdollahian, Farzad; Khaiyat, Omid; School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, United Kingdom. (Frontiers Media, 2019-04-25)
      Objective: To investigate the effects of a 16-week concurrent exercise regimen [resistance exercise (RE) + functional exercise (FE)] in combination with, or without, a leucine-enriched whey protein isolate supplement on muscle strength, physical functioning, aerobic capacity, and cardiometabolic health in older adults (≥60 years). Physical activity levels were also evaluated 6 months post-cessation of the intervention. Methods: Forty-six, community-dwelling, previously untrained males, and females [age: 68 ± 5 years (mean ± SD); BMI: 27.8 ± 6.2 kg/m2] who completed the trial were initially randomized to one of two independent arms [Exercise n = 24 (E); Exercise+Protein n = 22 (EP)]. Both arms completed 16 weeks of RE (performed to fatigue) (2 times/week) with FE (1 time/week) on non-consecutive days. Additionally, EP were administered a leucine-enriched whey protein supplement (3 times/day) for 16 weeks based on individual body-weight (1.5 g/kg/day). Results: As a result of dietary supplementation, protein intake increased in EP (∼1.2 ± 0.4 to 1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg/day) during the intervention. Maximal strength (1RM) values for leg press (E: +39 ± 7 kg, p = 0.006; EP: +63 ± 7 kg, p < 0.001), chest press (E: +22 ± 4 kg, p < 0.001; EP: +21 ± 6 kg, p < 0.001), and bicep curl (E: +7 ± 0 kg, p = 0.002; EP: +6 ± 1 kg, p = 0.008) significantly increased in E and EP respectively, with no differences between arms (p > 0.05). Physical functioning in the obstacle course (E: -5.1 ± 6.8 s, p < 0.001; EP: -2.8 ± 0.8 s, p < 0.001) and short-physical performance battery scores (E: +0.5 ± 0.5, p = <0.001; EP: +0.4 ± 0.5, p = 0.038), and aerobic capacity in the 6-min walk test (E: +37 ± 24 m, p = 0.014; EP: +36 ± 3 m, p = 0.005) improved in E and EP respectively, with no differences between arms (p > 0.05). No significant change was observed for markers of cardiometabolic health (glycaemic control or blood pressure) (p > 0.05). At follow-up, 86% of older adults reported to performing physical activity ≥1 per week. Of those, 61% were still participating in strength- and cardiovascular- based exercise. Conclusion: Concurrent exercise (RE + FE) offers a potent method to combat age-related muscle weakness, and our results suggest a high proportion of older adults may continue to exercise unsupervised. However, leucine-enriched whey protein isolate supplementation did not confer any additional benefit in those already consuming ample amounts of dietary protein at trial enrolment. Future trials should utilize a whole-foods approach and investigate the effects in frail and non-frail older adults habitually consuming the RDA of protein, to assess if a higher intake of protein is needed to delay the onset of muscle weakness.
    • Exploring sports nutrition knowledge in elite Gaelic footballers

      O'Brien, Luke; Collins, Kieran; Amirabdollahian, Farzad; School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Hope Park, Liverpool L16 9JD, UK. (MDPI, 2021-03-26)
      Nutrition intake plays a crucial role in improving athletic performance, enhancing adaptations to training, and augmenting recovery from exercise. However, research has reported that Gaelic footballers consistently fail to meet energy and carbohydrate recommendations. Sports nutrition knowledge (SNK) can influence the dietary intake of athletes, and therefore has the potential to have a significant impact on athletic performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the current level of SNK in elite Gaelic footballers (n = 100). An online version of the Nutrition for Sport Knowledge Questionnaire (NSKQ) was used to assess sports SNK. The overall mean SNK scores for Gaelic footballers and practitioners were 47.6 ± 12.3% and 78.1 ± 8.3%, respectively. There were no differences in knowledge between age groups, education level or divisional status. The top three sources of nutrition information identified by participants were team dietitian/nutritionists (84.0%), athletic trainers/strength and conditioning coaches (73%), and social media (37%). The results show that there is a major gap in the SNK of Gaelic footballers, while practitioners demonstrated a promising SNK, that could support Gaelic footballers. There is a need for development of interventions and knowledge transfer partnerships, including more effective methods of educating Gaelic footballers and translating sports nutrition principles to players. Developing appropriate nutritional education strategies using online resources and mobile applications could help to improve nutritional knowledge and practice of Gaelic footballers.
    • Reliability, validity, and gender invariance of the exercise benefits/barriers scale: An emerging evidence for a more concise research tool

      Koehn, Stefan; Amirabdollahian, Farzad; School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool L16 9JD, UK. (MDPI, 2021-03-29)
      The Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) research instrument has been extensively used to investigate the perceived benefits and barriers of exercise in a range of settings. In order to examine theoretical contentions and translate the findings, it is imperative to implement measurement tools that operationalize the constructs in an accurate and reliable way. The original validation of the EBBS proposed a nine-factor structure for the research tool, examined the EBBS factor structure, and suggested that various factors are important for the testing of the perception of exercise benefits and barriers, whereas a few items and factors may not be vital. The current study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using hierarchical testing in 565 participants from the northwest region of the United Kingdom, the results of which provided evidence for a four-factor structure of the benefits measure, with the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.943, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) = 0.933, and root means square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.051, namely life enhancement, physical performance, psychological outlook, and social interaction, as well as a two-factor structure of the barrier measures, with the CFI = 0.953, TLI = 0.931, and RMSEA = 0.063, including exercise milieu and time expenditure. Our findings showed that for a six-factor correlated model, the CFI = 0.930, TLI = 0.919, and RMSEA = 0.046. The multi-group CFA provided support for gender invariance. The results indicated that after three decades of the original validation of the EBBS, many of the core factors and items are still relevant for the assessment of higher-order factors; however, the 26-item concise tool proposed in the current study displays a better parsimony in comparison with the original 43-item questionnaire. Overall, the current study provides support for a reliable, cross-culturally valid EBBS within the UK adult population, however, it proposes a shorter and more concise version compared with the original tool, and gives direction for future research to focus on the content validity for assessing the perception of the barriers to physical activity.
    • The effects of pre-game carbohydrate intake on running performance and substrate utilisation during simulated Gaelic football match play

      O'Brien, Luke; Collins, Kieran; Webb, Richard; Davies, Ian; Doran, Dominic; Amirabdollahian, Farzad; School of Health Sciences, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool L16 9JD, UK. (MDPI, 2021-04-21)
      Previous research has reported that elite Gaelic football players' carbohydrate (CHO) intakes are sub-optimal, especially, in the lead up to competitive matches. Despite clear decrements in running performance across elite Gaelic football matches, there are no studies that have investigated nutrition interventions on match-related Gaelic football performance. The aim of this study was to determine whether a higher-CHO diet in line with sports nutrition guidelines can improve Gaelic football-related performance compared to lower CHO intakes previously observed in Gaelic footballers. Twelve Gaelic football players completed a Gaelic football simulation protocol (GFSP) on two occasions after consuming a high-CHO diet (7 g·kg-1) (HCHO) or an energy-matched lower-CHO diet (3.5 g·kg-1) (L-CHO) for 48 h. Movement demands and heart rate were measured using portable global positioning systems devices. Countermovement jump height (CMJ) and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) were measured throughout each trial. Expired respiratory gases were collected throughout the trial using a portable gas analyser. Blood samples were taken at rest, half-time, and post-simulation. There was no significant difference in total distance (p = 0.811; η2 = 0.005) or high-speed running distance (HSRD) covered between both trials. However, in the second half of the HCHO trial, HSRD was significantly greater compared to the second half of the LCHO trial (p = 0.015). Sprint distance covered during GFSP was significantly greater in HCHO (8.1 ± 3.5 m·min-1) compared with LCHO (6.4 ± 3.2 m·min-1) (p = 0.011; η2 = 0.445). RSA performance (p < 0.0001; η2 = 0.735) and lower body power (CMJ) (p < 0.0001; η2 = 0.683) were significantly greater during the HCHO trial compared to LCHO. Overall CHO oxidation rates were significantly greater under HCHO conditions compared to LCHO (3.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.7 ± 0.6 g·min-1) (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.798). Blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher during HCHO trial versus LCHO (p = 0.026; η2 = 0.375). There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and glycerol concentration between trials. In both trials, all blood metabolites were significantly elevated at half-time and post-trial compared to pre-trial. These findings indicate that a higher-CHO diet can reduce declines in physical performance during simulated Gaelic football match play.
    • Dietetic students' drivers and barriers to healthy eating while studying to be a healthcare professional (a pilot study)

      Trahearn, Marie; Merryweather, Dave; Amirabdollahian, Farzad (MDPI, 2021-05-13)
      For Dietetics students, starting university means developing the knowledge and skills required to be a healthcare practitioner. This pilot study aimed to explore the perceptions and views of the students on their drivers and barriers of healthy eating while studying Dietetics at university. A qualitative study was undertaken with a purposive sample of six final year Dietetic students at a UK university. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to elicit students' experiences and perceptions of barriers to healthy eating. Interview data were analysed thematically. Five themes emerged from the interview data including studying Dietetics, placement, influence of significant others, food security, and social and cultural aspects of the university life, with several sub-themes, and perspectives about the future beyond the university life. The findings suggest a potential need for Dietetics course providers to consider the range of barriers to healthy eating that students may encounter whilst studying and how these may undermine their ability to develop healthy eating practices and effective professional skills. Further research is required that explores the extent of barriers to healthy eating and examine whether these impinge upon effective practice.
    • Diagnostic power of circulatory metabolic biomarkers as metabolic syndrome risk predictors in community-dwelling older adults in Northwest of England (a feasibility study)

      Hassannejad, Razieh; Sharrouf, Hamsa; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Kirk, Ben; Amirabdollahian, Farzad; Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8158388994, Iran. (MDPI, 2021-06-30)
      Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases with pathophysiology strongly linked to aging. A range of circulatory metabolic biomarkers such as inflammatory adipokines have been associated with MetS; however, the diagnostic power of these markers as MetS risk correlates in elderly has yet to be elucidated. This cross-sectional study investigated the diagnostic power of circulatory metabolic biomarkers as MetS risk correlates in older adults. Hundred community dwelling older adults (mean age: 68.7 years) were recruited in a study, where their blood pressure, body composition and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) were measured; and their fasting capillary and venous blood were collected. The components of the MetS; and the serum concentrations of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-I (PAI-I), Leptin, Adiponectin, Resistin, Cystatin-C, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), insulin and ferritin were measured within the laboratory, and the HOMA1-IR and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) were calculated. Apart from other markers which were related with some cardiometabolic (CM) risk, after Bonferroni correction insulin had significant association with all components of Mets and AIP. These associations also remained significant in multivariate regression. The multivariate odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI)) showed a statistically significant association between IL-6 (OR: 1.32 (1.06-1.64)), TNF-α (OR: 1.37 (1.02-1.84)), Resistin (OR: 1.27 (1.04-1.54)) and CRP (OR: 1.29 (1.09-1.54)) with MetS risk; however, these associations were not found when the model was adjusted for age, dietary intake and adiposity. In unadjusted models, insulin was consistently statistically associated with at least two CM risk factors (OR: 1.33 (1.16-1.53)) and MetS risk (OR: 1.24 (1.12-1.37)) and in adjusted models it was found to be associated with at least two CM risk factors and MetS risk (OR: 1.87 (1.24-2.83) and OR: 1.25 (1.09-1.43)) respectively. Area under curve (AUC) for receiver operating characteristics (ROC) demonstrated a good discriminatory diagnostics power of insulin with AUC: 0.775 (0.683-0.866) and 0.785 by cross validation and bootstrapping samples for at least two CM risk factors and AUC: 0.773 (0.653-0.893) and 0.783 by cross validation and bootstrapping samples for MetS risk. This was superior to all other AUC reported from the ROC analysis of other biomarkers. Area under precision-recall curve for insulin was also superior to all other markers (0.839 and 0.586 for at least two CM risk factors and MetS, respectively). Fasting serum insulin concentration was statistically linked with MetS and its risk, and this link is stronger than all other biomarkers. Our ROC analysis confirmed the discriminatory diagnostic power of insulin as CM and MetS risk correlate in older adults.
    • Leucine-enriched whey protein supplementation, resistance-based exercise, and cardiometabolic health in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

      Kirk, Ben; Mooney, Kate; Vogrin, Sara; Jackson, Matthew; Duque, Gustavo; Khaiyat, Omid; Amirabdollahian, Farzad; Department of Medicine-Western Health, Melbourne Medical School, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. (Wiley, 2021-09-14)
      Background Increasing protein intake (above the Recommended Dietary Amount) alone or with resistance-based exercise is suggested to improve cardiometabolic health; however, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to confirm this. Methods The Liverpool Hope University-Sarcopenia Aging Trial (LHU-SAT) was a 16 week RCT (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02912130) of 100 community-dwelling older adults [mean age: 68.73 ± 5.80 years, body mass index: 27.06 ± 5.18 kg/m2 (52% women)] who were randomized to four independent groups [Control (C), Exercise (E), Exercise + Protein (EP), Protein (P)]. E and EP completed supervised and progressive resistance-based exercise (resistance exercise: two times per week, functional circuit exercise: once per week), while EP and P were supplemented with a leucine-enriched whey protein drink (three times per day) based on individual body weight (0.50 g/kg/meal, 1.50 g/kg/day). Outcome measures including arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity), fasting plasma/serum biomarkers [glucose/glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein, insulin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, cystatin-C, & ferritin], insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and kidney function (eGFR) were measured before and after intervention. Results Total protein intake (habitual diet plus supplementation) increased to 1.55 ± 0.69 g/kg/day in EP and to 1.93 ± 0.72 g/kg/day in P, and remained significantly lower (P < 0.001) in unsupplemented groups (E: 1.08 ± 0.33 g/kg/day, C: 1.00 ± 0.26 g/kg/day). At 16 weeks, there was a group-by-time interaction whereby absolute changes in LDL-cholesterol were lower in EP [mean difference: −0.79 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.29, −0.28, P = 0.002] and P (mean difference: −0.76 mmol/L, 95% CI: −1.26, −0.26, P = 0.003) vs. C. Serum insulin also showed group-by-time interactions at 16 weeks whereby fold changes were lower in EP (mean difference: −0.40, 95% CI: −0.65, −0.16, P = 0.001) and P (mean difference: −0.32, 95% CI: −0.56, −0.08, P = 0.009) vs. C, and fold changes in HOMA-IR improved in EP (mean difference: −0.37, 95% CI: −0.64, −0.10, P = 0.007) and P (mean difference: −0.27, 95% CI: −0.53, −0.00, P = 0.048) vs. C. Serum resistin declined in P only (group-by-time interaction at 16 weeks: P = 0.009). No other interactions were observed in outcome measures (P > 0.05), and kidney function (eGFR) remained unaltered. Conclusions Sixteen weeks of leucine-enriched whey protein supplementation alone and combined with resistance-based exercise improved cardiometabolic health markers in older adults.
    • Development and validation of an evaluation scale for audiovisual production for health interventions - ZIKAMOB

      da Costa, Emily Galdino; Fernandes, Izabelly Dutra; Albino, Victor Alves; Smania-Marques, Roberta; Olinda, Ricardo; da Silva, Leandro Fernandes; de Lima, Adrielly Karoliny; Barbosa Lourenço, Eli Mateus; Galisa, Steffany Sales; Albuquerque, Emanuelly Oliveira Muniz e; et al. (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2022-08-15)
      According to the World Health Organization, intervention actions and Health Education achieve better performance when based on Behavior Change Theories associated with new technologies. This work aimed to build and validate an Audiovisual Production Assessment Scale (APAS) for use in educational interventions. One hundred videos of up to 90 seconds in length, produced by high school students from Northeast Brazil, were analyzed. The APAS contains twenty statements, grouped into five sections, some of which are based on the Social Cognitive Theory (observational learning; facilitators) and others, such as the halo effect and cognitive comfort, were proposed by Daniel Kahneman. It was found that, of the twenty statements, 15 of them had no significant difference between different evaluators; having obtained a value of 0.941 for Cronbach&amp;#39;s Alpha, showing excellent internal reliability of the APAS. On average, 22 (33.8%) videos received a score greater than 60 points, indicating that they have the potential to significantly contribute to population behavior change in relation to the prevention of mosquito-borne arboviruses; 28 (41.3%) contribute satisfactorily; 15 (22.9%), partially and from one to two videos were scored with values lower than 19 points. Altogether, 12% of the videos received maximum scores in relation to the total score and subjective score. The APAS is, therefore, an example of an effective tool for assessing audiovisual content that can be used in educational interventions in health, with good internal reliability. The scale allows evaluating any content, classifying the production into categories that reveal its potential to promote behavior change.