• ‘Silence is the sentence’: adult learners’ experiences of a co-created curriculum constructed through free writing tasks

      Scott, Howard; Bennett, Pete (Liverpool John Moores University, 2022-12-31)
      This paper outlines the pedagogical approaches taken on a University Access course, teaching predominantly mature students on a 12-week ‘inclusion in education’ module. The methods aimed to validate and develop literacy and academic skills for students undertaking undergraduate courses. Practice on the programme of study, replicated over three years, is informed by transformative learning theories. We outline how our developing praxis situates students’ self-concepts in confronting past biographical experiences of education and empowers them to improved literacy and purpose. We further propose that such andragogical approaches to teaching and learning can potentially serve as a model for improved literacy practices in post-compulsory education in England – a curriculum and qualification regime in radical need of overhaul and replacement.
    • Hip-Hop party dance: Cardiorespiratory profile and responses to a predefined sequence

      Prates, Claudia Machado; Tsiouti, Nefeli; Fagundes, Alex de Oliveira; Reichert, Thaís; Wyon, Matthew; Haas, Aline Nogueira (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-12-31)
      Hip-hop is a popular dance genre practised worldwide that has gained popularity since the 1970’s. Despite which, studies related to the area and its physiological demands are still scarce. The purpose of this study was to report the cardiorespiratory profile of a group of male and female hip-hop dancers and determine the zones of intensity of a predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. Eight Brazilian professional hip-hop dancers, 4 women and 4 men, mean age 22 ± 2.3 years participated in the study. Using a portable gas analyser (Cosmed K5) their cardiorespiratory variables were measured at two different times: first, during a maximal treadmill test; and later during a predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) were used for calculated the dependent variables: oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and the intensity zones for the predefined hip-hop sequence. Data normality was verified using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was performed to check any sex-related difference (p<0.01). No statistical difference between male and female dancers was found in the cardiorespiratory profile and responses to the predefined hip-hop party dance sequence. On the treadmill, the participants’ VO2peak was 57.3 ± 12.7 ml·kg-1·min-1, and HRmax was 190.0 ± 9.1 b·min-1. The predefined hip-hop party dance sequence was mainly performed (61% of the sequence) in the moderate aerobic zone. However, when the dancers jumped, the intensity of the sequence increased. This information could be used to develop a specific supplementary training protocols for hip-hop dancers, thus helping to improve their physiological fitness parameters and reduce the incidence of injury.
    • Walking on thin ice: Exploring demands and means of coping during an extreme expedition

      Devonport, Tracey; Meijen, Carla; Lloyd, Juliette (Purdue University Press, 2022-12-31)
      The present exploratory study was undertaken with two experienced explorers in order to examine daily events, perceived demands, coping strategies, and mood during a unique 636-675 km ‘double solo’ crossing of Lake Baikal, a frozen lake in Siberia. A 59-year-old female explorer and a 49-year-old male explorer completed a daily survey and written diary during the expedition to collect situational data. Two semi-structured interviews were also completed, one within 24-hours and a second within four months of their return. These interviews sought to identify demands and coping efforts perceived as being most pertinent during their expedition. Guided by the work of Skinner et al. (2003), families of coping were organised around three human concerns (autonomy, relatedness, and competence) and two targets of coping (self or context). Findings illustrate two very different expedition experiences as evidenced by demands faced and coping strategies utilised, which influenced perceptions of workload and emotions experienced. Each explorer brought idiosyncrasies, which, when combined with different expedition experiences, bore influence on coping behaviours (focused on the self or context) and outcomes relative to the concerns of autonomy, relatedness, and competency. In discussing the findings, recommendations are offered for those preparing to undertake expeditions in extreme environments.
    • The effects of the 11+ dance on jump height and lower extremity biomechanics in female adolescent dancers: A non-randomized controlled pilot trial

      Sudds, Karen; Mauras, Philipp; Nigg, Sandro; Wyon, Matthew; Kolokythas, Nico (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-12-31)
      Introduction: Neuromuscular warm-up programs, such as FIFA 11+ were developed as early as 2006. These programs have been effective in reducing the risk of injury in female athletes by decreasing the moments surrounding the knee and improving neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements such as jumping and landing. In addition, they have been effective for improving jump height in soccer, volleyball, and basketball. Methods: The effects of the 11+ Dance, a dance-specific neuromuscular warm-up program, was examined on jump height and lower extremity biomechanics during bilateral and single leg countermovement jumps in recreational dancers. Twenty female adolescents from two dance schools participated in this two-centered 8-week controlled non-randomized trial. The intervention group (IG) performed the 11+ Dance program 3x/week for 8-weeks during the first 30-min of their regularly scheduled dance classes. The control group (CG) continued with their regular dance classes routine. Ground reaction force and motion capture data were used to assess jump height and lower extremity biomechanics pre and post intervention Results: Both groups statistically increased their jump height (CG: Z=1.89-2.45, p≤0.0167; IG: Z=2.18-2.76, p≤0.0167). However, no statistical between group differences were observed (Z=0.38-1.22, p>0.05). During takeoff, the IG statistically reduced peak knee extension moments (t(18)=-3.04 to -3.77, p≤0.0167) while increasing peak hip extension moments (t(18)=2.16-2.79, p≤0.05) and peak hip flexion angles (t(18)=2.68-3.72, p≤0.0167) compared to the CG. The IG also increased the hip flexion angles compared to the CG during landing (t(18)=2.78-5.13, p≤0.0167) while no systematic differences were observed in all other variables of lower extremity biomechanics. Conclusion: The reduced joint load at the knee observed during takeoff needs further investigation. Neuromuscular training, such as the 11+Dance, is supported by numerous quality research. Due to its simplicity, the 11+ Dance may be feasible and beneficial to complement regular warm-ups in recreational dance practice.
    • Postdigital dupery and its epistemic vices

      MacKenzie, Alison; Rose, Jennifer; Bhatt, Ibrar; Hayes, Sarah L (Springer, 2022-09-21)
      In early 2020, Alison MacKenzie and Ibrar Bhatt guest edited the Special Issue of Postdigital Science and Education, ‘Lies, Bullshit and Fake News Online: Should We Be Worried?’ (MacKenzie and Bhatt 2020), and in early 2021, Alison MacKenzie, Jennifer Rose, and Ibrar Bhatt published their edited book, The Epistemology of Deceit in a Postdigital Era: Dupery by Design (MacKenzie et al. 2021b), in Postdigital Science and Education book series.Footnote 1 To continue this important work, Sarah Hayes emailed Alison, Jennifer, and Ibrar to arrange this conversation. Alison and Ibrar met with Sarah online in May 2021 and talked for two hours, with Jennifer providing her insights via email, to be blended into the dialogue.
    • The postdigital-biodigital revolution

      Means, Alexander; Jandrić, Petar; Sojot, Amy; Ford, Derek R.; Peters, Michael A.; Hayes, Sarah L (Springer, 2022-09-16)
    • Determining pointe readiness in young adolescent female dancers: A systematic review

      Hough-Coles, Kelly; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-09-15)
      Dancing 'en pointe' is an integral aspect of ballet for female dancers who start pointe training in young adolescence. The primary objective of this review was to investigate the screening tests used to determine pointe readiness in young adolescent female dancers, and the secondary objective was to determine the injuries associated with pointe training. The search engines Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were mined using Medical Subject Heading terms "pointe", "pointe readiness", "injury", "young", "adolescent", "female", "dancer" and a manual search of relevant articles was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: females; aged 8-20 years; pre-pointe, training en pointe; pointe-related injury. Search strategy followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The following data were extracted; first author, year of publication, study design, participant size, mean age, testing, outcome, and general notes of each study. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Research Triangle Institute Item Bank (RTI-IB). Eight cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. Results suggested topple, airplane, sauté, and relevé tests are statistically better determinants of pointe readiness than chronological age alone. Utilising these methods alongside age, strength, body maturation, range of motion (ROM), and teacher evaluation could provide an all-round insight into a dancer's readiness for pointe. However, the included studies had contradictory outcomes with regards to pointe-related injury and the review's conclusions are limited by methodological design.
    • Postdigital critical pedagogy

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah; Abdi, Ali A; Misiaszek, Greg William (Palgrave Macmillan, 2022-09-14)
    • Nobody needs a label’: Responses on Facebook to a Team GB equity, diversity and inclusion initiative

      Devonport, Tracey; Leflay, Kath; Biscomb, Kay; Richardson-Walsh, Helen; Richardson-Walsh, Kate; Thelwall, Mike (Taylor & Francis, 2022-09-09)
      In support of the UK Stonewall Rainbow Laces Campaign, which focuses on supporting LGBTQ+ people, the British Olympic Association “Team GB” changed their Facebook logo to ‘Team LGBT+’ for a Day. Using reflexive thematic analysis, we assessed public reactions to an official Facebook post explaining the temporary logo change. During polarised debate, opposition was rarely expressed using directly homophobic sentiments but instead argued that the initiative was divisive by highlighting difference and would be ineffective, reflecting defensive conservative strategies to avoid supporting marginalised groups. Others, engaging in substantial online discussions, claimed to be upset about LGBTQ+ issues being forced on them. Proponents explained the purpose of the Day and the positive impact it could have. Findings suggested the importance of explaining that supporting one marginalised group does not undermine the rights of others, the ongoing difficulties that many face, and that the current situation is not a level playing field.
    • Palestinian EFL students' perceptions of using Edmodo in developing their writing skills

      Itmeizeh, Mahmoud; Khalil, Zeiadee; Smith, Matt (Palestine Ahliya University, 2022-09-03)
      The present study explored Palestinian EFL students’ perceptions towards the use of Edmodo in developing their writing skills at Palestine Ahliya University, Bethlehem. Sixteen sophomore English major students taking the Oral Communication II course in the Spring Semester 2019 -2020 served as the participants of the study. The researchers adopted a mixed methodological approach. A questionnaire consisting of 27 items was adapted by the researchers for the purpose of eliciting students’ perceptions towards the use of Edmodo in developing their writing skills and the barriers they faced while using the platform. In addition, in-depth qualitative data was gathered from students' written responses to an end-of-course assignment posted on Edmodo. In general, the results of the study revealed that students had positive perceptions towards using Edmodo in terms of writing development and collaborative learning. However, it is worth noting that several participants reflected negative responses which resulted from the technological difficulties and their limited experiences with Edmodo.
    • "You have to know how to live with it without getting to the addiction part": British young adult experiences of smartphone over-reliance and disconnectivity

      Conroy, Dominic; Chadwick, Darren; Fullwood, Chris; Lloyd, Joanne (American Psychological Association, 2022-09-01)
      Smartphone usage offers undeniable upsides (e.g. social connectivity and increased productivity). However, the ever-expanding utilities of smartphones have prompted debate around device over-reliance, which has prompted interest in ‘digital detox’, ‘technology pushback’ and ‘disconnectivity’. We report an in-depth qualitative exploration of perceptions of smartphone over-reliance and experiences of attempting to modify usage (i.e., efforts to disconnect) among fourteen 18-30-year-old university students. Semi-structured interview transcripts were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). A first theme – ‘It’s like an addiction’ – concerned the drift from valuing the convenience/productivity afforded by smartphones into feeling over-reliant on devices. Over-reliance could hinder meeting basic needs, limit time for valued pastimes and could unsettle feelings of agency. A second theme – ‘It’s difficult to maintain abstinence’ - concerned barriers to modification efforts, including fearing possible social repercussions, transferring attention to other Internet-affording devices, and self-deception. This article highlights how modifying habitual usage patterns may be challenging and encourages debate around how ‘smartphone over-reliance’ could be framed.
    • The efficacy of the physical fitness training on dance injury: A systematic review

      Dang, Yanan; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Chen, Ruoling; Wyon, Matthew (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2022-08-24)
      Greater levels of physical fitness have been linked to improved dance performance and decreased injury incidence. The aim was to review the efficacy of physical fitness training on dance injury. The electronic databases CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure were used to search peer-reviewed published articles in English or Chinese. Studies were scored using Strength of the Evidence for a Conclusion and a risk bias checklist. 10 studies met the inclusion criteria from an initial 2450 publications. These studies offered physical fitness training for professional (n=3) and pre-professional dancers (n=7), participant sample size ranged between 5 to 62, ages from 11 to 27 years, and most participants were females. Assessment scores were classified as Fair (n=1), Limited (n=7), and Expert Opinion Only (n=2) and risk of bias scores ranged from 22.7- 68.2%. After physical fitness training, 80% of studies reported significant benefits in injury rate, the time between injuries, pain intensity, pain severity, missed dance activities and injury count. This review suggests that physical fitness training could have a beneficial effect on injury incidence in dance. The evidence is limited by the current study methodologies.
    • Development and validation of an evaluation scale for audiovisual production for health interventions - ZIKAMOB

      da Costa, Emily Galdino; Fernandes, Izabelly Dutra; Albino, Victor Alves; Smania-Marques, Roberta; Olinda, Ricardo; da Silva, Leandro Fernandes; de Lima, Adrielly Karoliny; Barbosa Lourenço, Eli Mateus; Galisa, Steffany Sales; Albuquerque, Emanuelly Oliveira Muniz e; et al. (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2022-08-15)
      According to the World Health Organization, intervention actions and Health Education achieve better performance when based on Behavior Change Theories associated with new technologies. This work aimed to build and validate an Audiovisual Production Assessment Scale (APAS) for use in educational interventions. One hundred videos of up to 90 seconds in length, produced by high school students from Northeast Brazil, were analyzed. The APAS contains twenty statements, grouped into five sections, some of which are based on the Social Cognitive Theory (observational learning; facilitators) and others, such as the halo effect and cognitive comfort, were proposed by Daniel Kahneman. It was found that, of the twenty statements, 15 of them had no significant difference between different evaluators; having obtained a value of 0.941 for Cronbach&amp;#39;s Alpha, showing excellent internal reliability of the APAS. On average, 22 (33.8%) videos received a score greater than 60 points, indicating that they have the potential to significantly contribute to population behavior change in relation to the prevention of mosquito-borne arboviruses; 28 (41.3%) contribute satisfactorily; 15 (22.9%), partially and from one to two videos were scored with values lower than 19 points. Altogether, 12% of the videos received maximum scores in relation to the total score and subjective score. The APAS is, therefore, an example of an effective tool for assessing audiovisual content that can be used in educational interventions in health, with good internal reliability. The scale allows evaluating any content, classifying the production into categories that reveal its potential to promote behavior change.
    • NICE’s recent guidelines on “the size of your waist” unfairly penalizes shorter people

      Nevill, Alan M.; Duncan, Michael J; Myers, Tony (Elsevier, 2022-08-09)
      The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) has just released its latest guidelines to assess and predict health risk, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension or cardiovascular disease. Their latest advice is “Keep the size of your waist to less than half of your height”. We believe this advice is flawed and will seriously and unfairly penalize shorter people and lull taller people into a false sense of security. In this short communication, we provide this evidence. We consider this a serious oversight by NICE and feel strongly that this evidence needs to be made available in the public domain.
    • SP2.2.4 Structured prehabilitation reduces physical deconditioning and improves emotional and physical well-being during neo-adjuvant chemotherapy prior to surgery for oesophageal cancer

      Knight, William; Zylstra, Janine; White, Greg; Lane, Andrew; Browning, Mike; Davies, Andrew (British Journal of Surgery Society/ Oxford University Press, 2022-08-09)
    • Docetaxel for nonmetastatic prostate cancer: Long-term survival outcomes in the STAMPEDE randomized controlled trial

      James, Nicholas D; Ingleby, Fiona C; Clarke, Noel W; Amos, Claire L; Attard, Gerhardt; Brawley, Christopher D; Chowdhury, Simon; Cross, William; Dearnaley, David P; Gilbert, Duncan C; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2022-07-25)
      Background STAMPEDE previously reported adding upfront docetaxel improved overall survival for prostate cancer patients starting long-term androgen deprivation therapy. We report long-term results for non-metastatic patients using, as primary outcome, metastatic progression-free survival (mPFS), an externally demonstrated surrogate for overall survival. Methods Standard of care (SOC) was androgen deprivation therapy with or without radical prostate radiotherapy. A total of 460 SOC and 230 SOC plus docetaxel were randomly assigned 2:1. Standard survival methods and intention to treat were used. Treatment effect estimates were summarized from adjusted Cox regression models, switching to restricted mean survival time if non-proportional hazards. mPFS (new metastases, skeletal-related events, or prostate cancer death) had 70% power (α = 0.05) for a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.70. Secondary outcome measures included overall survival, failure-free survival (FFS), and progression-free survival (PFS: mPFS, locoregional progression). Results Median follow-up was 6.5 years with 142 mPFS events on SOC (3 year and 54% increases over previous report). There was no good evidence of an advantage to SOC plus docetaxel on mPFS (HR = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66 to 1.19; P = .43); with 5-year mPFS 82% (95% CI = 78% to 87%) SOC plus docetaxel vs 77% (95% CI = 73% to 81%) SOC. Secondary outcomes showed evidence SOC plus docetaxel improved FFS (HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.88; P = .002) and PFS (nonproportional P = .03, restricted mean survival time difference = 5.8 months, 95% CI = 0.5 to 11.2; P = .03) but no good evidence of overall survival benefit (125 SOC deaths; HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.64 to 1.21; P = .44). There was no evidence SOC plus docetaxel increased late toxicity: post 1 year, 29% SOC and 30% SOC plus docetaxel grade 3-5 toxicity. Conclusions There is robust evidence that SOC plus docetaxel improved FFS and PFS (previously shown to increase quality-adjusted life-years), without excess late toxicity, which did not translate into benefit for longer-term outcomes. This may influence patient management in individual cases.
    • Mosquito-borne arboviruses in Brazil: Assessment of apps based on the mobile apps rating scale (MARS)

      Alves Albino, Victor; Dutra Fernandes, Izabelly; Almeida, Ricardo; Santos-Silva, Tais Acácia; Smania-Marques, Roberta; Smith, Matt; Traxler, John; Santos, Silvana (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2022-07-19)
      Background: In Brazil, the prevalence of arboviral diseases, such as dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya, transmitted mainly by mosquitos, has increased alarmingly. In recent years, numerous free mobile apps tackling this issue have become available for various purposes and users. Objectives: This study aimed to systematically survey and evaluate these apps using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Methods: The survey was performed on Google Play Store and sought to identify these apps adopting the descriptors “Chikungunya”, “Dengue” and “Zika”. The MARS scale was used by two researchers to evaluate the apps following their translation to Portuguese and subsequent validation. Student's T-test, Kappa statistics, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were employed to evaluate the interobserver agreement and the reliability of the scale. Results: Most apps (20 out of 29 or ~70%) were created to disseminate basic information about arboviral diseases to the population or for entertainment. There was an agreement between the two researchers for all parameters of the MARS scale, except for the engagement (p=0.002). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated good reliability. Conclusions: The use of the MARS scale has shown that most of the evaluated apps were developed to share information about arboviral diseases in an interactive way, but they do not necessarily have the purpose of influencing their users to change behaviours related to vector control or the prevention of arboviral diseases, which the authors feel would be a more appropriate aim for future app development.
    • What is the physiological impact of reducing the 2,000 m Olympic distance in rowing to 1,500 m and 1,000 m for French young competitive rowers? Insights from the energy system contribution

      Diry, Allison; Ratel, Sébastien; Nevill, Alan M.; Maciejewski, Hugo (Frontiers Media, 2022-07-18)
      French rowing federation reduced the competition distance to 1,500 and 1,000 m in rowers under 16- (U16) and 14-year-old (U14) respectively, to prepare them progressively to the Olympic 2,000 m distance in under 18-year-old (U18). This study aimed to check the hypothesis that relative aerobic (%EAe) and anaerobic (%EAn) energy contributions would be comparable between the competition distances since the more oxidative profile of younger age categories could offset the greater anaerobic contribution induced by shorter rowing races. Thirty-one 12- to 17-year-old competitive rowers performed a race of 2,000, 1,500, or 1,000 m on a rowing ergometer according to their age category. %EAe and %EAn were estimated from oxygen consumption, changes in blood lactate concentration and their energy equivalents. %EAe was lower in U16 than U18 (84.7 vs. 87.0%, p < 0.01), and in U14 than U16 (80.6 vs. 84.7%, p < 0.001). %EAn was higher in U16 than U18 (15.3 vs. 13.0%, p < 0.01), and in U14 than U16 (19.4 vs. 15.3%, p < 0.01). The results did not confirm our initial hypothesis since %EAe and %EAn were significantly different between the race distances, and thus age categories. However, %EAn in U18, U16 and U14 were found to be in the range of values previously found in adult rowers over the 2,000 m Olympic distance (12–30%). Therefore, on a practical level, the strategy implemented by the French rowing federation to reduce the competition distance in the younger age categories could be relevant to progressively prepare them to the physiological requirements encountered over the Olympic distance.
    • Collective writing: the continuous struggle for meaning-making

      Jandrić, Petar; Luke, Timothy; Sturm, Sean; McLaren, Peter; Jackson, Liz; MacKenzie, Alison; Tesar, Marek; Georgina, Stewart; Peter, Roberts; Abegglen, Sandra; et al. (Springer, 2022-07-15)
      This paper is a summary of philosophy, theory, and practice arising from collective writing experiments conducted between 2016 and 2022 in the community associated with the Editors’ Collective and more than 20 scholarly journals. The main body of the paper summarises the community’s insights into the many faces of collective writing. Appendix 1 presents the workflow of the article’s development. Appendix 2 lists approximately 100 collectively written scholarly articles published between 2016 and 2022. Collective writing is a continuous struggle for meaning-making, and our research insights merely represent one milestone in this struggle. Collective writing can be designed in many different ways, and our workflow merely shows one possible design that we found useful. There are many more collectively written scholarly articles than we could gather, and our reading list merely offers sources that the co-authors could think of. While our research insights and our attempts at synthesis are inevitably incomplete, ‘Collective Writing: The Continuous Struggle for Meaning-Making’ is a tiny theoretical steppingstone and a useful overview of sources for those interested in theory and practice of collective writing.