Recent Submissions

  • Forgiveness and punishment in Kant's moral system

    Satne, Paula; Krasnoff, Larry; Sanchez Madrid, Nuria; Satne, Paula (University of Wales Press, 2018-02-28)
  • Reliability of motivation and the moral value of actions

    Satne, Paula (Sociedade Kant Brasileira, 2013-06-30)
    Kant is often interpreted as meaning that (a) only actions performed out of duty have moral worth, while (b) actions in conformity with duty are evil or morally inadmissible. Furthermore, it is often claimed that c) having a good Gesinnung (that is, a virtuous character) is the necessary condition for the action of an agent has moral worth. This means that only deeds of duty performed by a virtuous agent can be considered to have moral value. This article argues that this influential interpretation is not correct, showing that Kant is committed to (a) but not to (b) or (c). It is shown that such actions can be right without having moral value, and actions can have moral value, even if the agent does not have a virtuous character. It follows from this that, in Kant's system, one can distinguish three forms of moral appreciation: (i) virtue that is reserved for agents who have good character, or Gesinnung, (ii) moral value that belongs to action. actions performed out of a conscience of duty, and (iii) correction which pertains to actions performed on the basis of maxims that can be willed to be universal laws. This means that Kantian ethics is not only concerned with the correctness or incorrectness of certain actions, nor that it is, above all, an ethics of virtue. Rather, Kant's system is complex and allows for different forms of moral appreciation, in which both an action-centered and an agent-centered perspective can be integrated. or Gesinnung, (ii) moral value that pertains to actions performed out of a conscience of duty, and (iii) correctness that pertains to actions performed on the basis of maxims that can be expected to be laws universal. This means that Kantian ethics is not only concerned with the correctness or incorrectness of certain actions, nor that it is, above all, an ethics of virtue. Rather, Kant's system is complex and allows for different forms of moral appreciation, in which both an action-centered and an agent-centered perspective can be integrated. or Gesinnung, (ii) moral value that pertains to actions performed out of a conscience of duty, and (iii) correctness that pertains to actions performed on the basis of maxims that can be expected to be laws universal. This means that Kantian ethics is not only concerned with the correctness or incorrectness of certain actions, nor that it is, above all, an ethics of virtue. Rather, Kant's system is complex and allows for different forms of moral appreciation, in which both an action-centered and an agent-centered perspective can be integrated. This means that Kantian ethics is not only concerned with the correctness or incorrectness of certain actions, nor that it is, above all, an ethics of virtue. Rather, Kant's system is complex and allows for different forms of moral appreciation, in which both an action-centered and an agent-centered perspective can be integrated. This means that Kantian ethics is not only concerned with the correctness or incorrectness of certain actions, nor that it is, above all, an ethics of virtue. Rather, Kant's system is complex and allows for different forms of moral appreciation, in which both an action-centered and an agent-centered perspective can be integrated.
  • Grenberg's phenomenological Kant

    Satne, Paula (Con-textos Kantianos, 2015-06-30)
  • Introduction: forgiveness and conflict

    Satne, Paula; Department of Philosophy, Manchester University, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL UK. (Springer, 2016-12-28)
    The papers collected in this volume are a selection of papers that were presented - or scheduled to be presented - at a workshop entitled Forgiveness and Conflict, which took place from 8-10 September 2014, as part of the Mancept Workshops in Political Theory at the University of Manchester. Some of these contributions are now compiled in this volume. The selected papers draw from different philosophical traditions and conceptual frameworks, addressing many aspects of contemporary philosophical debates on the nature and normativity of forgiveness, including its political aspects. The result is a rich collection of essays which covers a wide variety of philosophical issues, displaying cutting edge scholarship in this area. This introduction provides a brief overview of some of the central themes discussed in the volume with a particular emphasis on their innovative aspects.
  • A-Wakening

    Foster, Christopher; Mills, Joanne; University of Wolverhampton (University of Wolverhampton, 2017-11)
    Installation: A-Wakening November 2017 Arena Theatre, Wolverhampton. A-Wakening: a multi-sensory environmental installation created to respond to the active and immersive relationship between audience and artwork. A collaboration between artist and PhD student Joanne Mills and Dr Chris Foster of the University of Wolverhampton, a dark space is filled with haze, visuals and a ‘dream-like’ soundscape to be experienced and explored.
  • Caste: experiences in South Asia and beyond

    Gorringe, Hugo; Jodhka, Surinder S.; Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (Taylor & Francis, 2017-07-03)
    This special issue of Contemporary South Asia seeks to capture the diversity and situatedness of the caste experience and deepen our understanding of caste dynamics and lives in the twenty-first century. In this Introduction, we highlight the continuing salience of caste, offer an overview of theoretical understandings of caste and foreground the importance of analysing caste in the present as a dynamic form of human relations, rather than a remnant of tradition. Following on from this, we highlight the increasingly global spread of caste and reflect on what happens to caste-based social relations when they traverse continents. In conclusion, we introduce the papers that make up this special issue. Taken together, they speak to changes in attitudes towards caste, but also the persistence of caste-based identities and dynamics in India and Britain. Even though the papers presented in this special issue work with the assumption of caste being a reality in and among the Indians, caste-like status hierarchies have existed in most, if not all, societies, and they continue to persist and intersect with other forms of differences/inequalities.
  • 'What About Love?': claiming and re-claiming LGBTQ+ spaces in 21st century musical theatre

    Lovelock, James; Whitfield, Sarah (Red Globe Press, 2019-03-08)
  • Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match

    Draganidis, D; Chatzinikolaou, A; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, JC; Mohr, M; Malliou, P; Gourgoulis, V; Deli, CK; Douroudos, II; Margonis, K; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2015-06-04)
    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12h (both limbs) and 36h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36h at 60°/s and for 60h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level.
  • Age-related responses in circulating markers of redox status in healthy adolescents and adults during the course of a training macrocycle

    Zalavras, A; Fatouros, IG; Deli, CK; Draganidis, D; Theodorou, AA; Soulas, D; Koutsioras, Y; Koutedakis, Y; Jamurtas, AZ; Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 42100 Trikala, Greece. (Hindawi, 2015-04-06)
    Redox status changes during an annual training cycle in young and adult track and field athletes and possible differences between the two age groups were assessed. Forty-six individuals (24 children and 22 adults) were assigned to four groups: trained adolescents, (TAD, N=13), untrained adolescents (UAD, N=11), trained adults (TA, N=12), and untrained adults (UA, N=10). Aerobic capacity and redox status related variables [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, TBARS, protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid, and bilirubin] were assessed at rest and in response to a time-trial bout before training, at mid- and posttraining. TAC, catalase activity, TBARS, PC, uric acid, and bilirubin increased and GSH declined in all groups in response to acute exercise independent of training status and age. Training improved aerobic capacity, TAC, and GSH at rest and in response to exercise. Age affected basal and exercise-induced responses since adults demonstrated a greater TAC and GSH levels at rest and a greater rise of TBARS, protein carbonyls, and TAC and decline of GSH in response to exercise. Catalase activity, uric acid, and bilirubin responses were comparable among groups. These results suggest that acute exercise, age, and training modulate the antioxidant reserves of the body.
  • Uremic myopathy: Is oxidative stress implicated in muscle dysfunction in uremia?

    Kaltsatou, A; Sakkas, GK; Poulianiti, KP; Koutedakis, Y; Tepetes, K; Christodoulidis, G; Stefanidis, I; Karatzaferi, C; Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences (DPESS), School of Physical Education (PE), University of Thessaly Trikala, Greece. (Frontiers Media SA, 2015-03-30)
    Renal failure is accompanied by progressive muscle weakness and premature fatigue, in part linked to hypokinesis and in part to uremic toxicity. These changes are associated with various detrimental biochemical and morphological alterations. All of these pathological parameters are collectively termed uremic myopathy. Various interventions while helpful can't fully remedy the pathological phenotype. Complex mechanisms that stimulate muscle dysfunction in uremia have been proposed, and oxidative stress could be implicated. Skeletal muscles continuously produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) at rest and more so during contraction. The aim of this mini review is to provide an update on recent advances in our understanding of how ROS and RNS generation might contribute to muscle dysfunction in uremia. Thus, a systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and Scopus by using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. While few studies met our criteria their findings are discussed making reference to other available literature data. Oxidative stress can direct muscle cells into a catabolic state and chronic exposure to it leads to wasting. Moreover, redox disturbances can significantly affect force production per se. We conclude that oxidative stress can be in part responsible for some aspects of uremic myopathy. Further research is needed to discern clear mechanisms and to help efforts to counteract muscle weakness and exercise intolerance in uremic patients.
  • Fostering autonomous motivation, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in rheumatoid arthritis: Protocol and rationale for a randomised control trial

    Rouse, PC; van Zanten, JJCSV; Metsios, GS; Ntoumanis, N; Yu, CA; Koutedakis, Y; Fenton, SAM; Coast, J; Mistry, H; Kitas, GD; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2014-12-19)
    © 2014 Rouse et al. Background: People with rheumatoid arthritis are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease than the general population. Sustained physical activity increases cardio-respiratory fitness and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, little is known about how we can effectively promote long-term participation in physical activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The literature consistently calls for physical activity interventions, and their implementation, to be theoretically-grounded. Methods/Design: This paper documents the protocol of a randomised control trial that investigates whether a Self-determination Theory-based intervention fosters the adoption and maintenance of physical activity (3, 6 and 12 months) sufficient to provide sustained cardiovascular and personal well-being benefits in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be determined. The trial is registered as Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN04121489. Discussion: Results from this trial will provide guidance regarding key social environmental factors that can be manipulated to support motivational processes conducive to positive health behaviour change and optimal functioning in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
  • Glycemic response of a carbohydrate-protein bar with ewe-goat whey

    Manthou, E; Kanaki, M; Georgakouli, K; Deli, CK; Kouretas, D; Koutedakis, Y; Jamurtas, AZ; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Technological Educational Institute of Thessaly, Karditsa 43100, Greece. (MDPI, 2014-06-12)
    In this study we examined the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) of a functional food product, which contains ewe-goat whey protein and carbohydrates in a 1:1 ratio. Nine healthy volunteers, (age, 23.3 ± 3.9 years; body mass index, 24.2 ± 4.1 kg·m2; body fat %, 18.6 ± 10.0) randomly consumed either a reference food or amount of the test food both with equal carbohydrate content in two visits. In each visit, seven blood samples were collected; the first sample after an overnight fast and the remaining six at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the beginning of food consumption. Plasma glucose concentration was measured and the GI was determined by calculation of the incremental area under the curve. The GL was calculated using the equation: test food GI/100 g available carbohydrates per test food serving. The GI of the test food was found to be 5.18 ± 3.27, while the GL of one test food serving was 1.09 ± 0.68. These results indicate that the tested product can be classified as a low GI (<55) and low GL (<10) food. Given the health benefits of low glycaemic response foods and whey protein consumption, the tested food could potentially promote health beyond basic nutrition.
  • Instruments to assess secondhand smoke exposure in large cohorts of never smokers: The smoke scales

    Misailidi, M; Tzatzarakis, MN; Kavvalakis, MP; Koutedakis, Y; Tsatsakis, AM; Flouris, AD; FAME Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Trikala, Greece ; Department of Exercise Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece ; Regional Directorate of Primary and Secondary Education of Western Greece, Patras, Greece. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2014-01-21)
    The objectives of this study were to: (i) to develop questionnaires that can identify never-smoking children and adults experiencing increased exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS+), (ii) to determine their validity against hair nicotine, and (iii) assess their reliability. A sample of 191 children (85 males; 106 females; 7-18 years) and 95 adult (23 males; 72 females; 18- 62 years) never-smokers consented to hair nicotine analysis and answered a large number of questions assessing all sources of SHS. A randomly-selected 30% answered the questions again after 20-30 days. Prevalence of SHS+ in children and adults was 0.52±0.07 and 0.67±0.10, respectively (p<0.05). The Smoke Scale for Children (SS-C) and the Smoke Scale for Adults (SS-A) were developed via factor analysis and included nine questions each. Positivity criteria for SS-C and SS-A via receiver operating characteristics curve analysis were identified at >16.5 and >16, respectively. Significant Kappa agreement (p<0.05) was confirmed when comparing the SS-C and SS-A to hair nicotine concentration. Reliability analyses demonstrated that the SS-C and SS-A scores obtained on two different days are highly correlated (p<0.001) and not significantly different (p>0.05). Area under the curve and McNemar's Chi-square showed no pair-wise differences in sensitivity and specificity at the cutoff point between the two different days for SS-C and SS-A (p>0.05). We conclude that the SS-C and the SS-A represent valid, reliable, practical, and inexpensive instruments to identify children and adult never-smokers exposed to increased SHS. Future research should aim to further increase the validity of the two questionnaires. © 2014 Misailidi et al.
  • Evidence of increased muscle atrophy and impaired quality of life parameters in patients with Uremic restless legs syndrome

    Giannaki, CD; Sakkas, GK; Karatzaferi, C; Hadjigeorgiou, GM; Lavdas, E; Liakopoulos, V; Tsianas, N; Koukoulis, GN; Koutedakis, Y; Stefanidis, I; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2011-10-03)
    Background: Restless Legs Syndrome is a very common disorder in hemodialysis patients. Restless Legs Syndrome negatively affects quality of life; however it is not clear whether this is due to mental or physical parameters and whether an association exists between the syndrome and parameters affecting survival. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using the Restless Legs Syndrome criteria and the presence of Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep (PLMS/h >15), 70 clinically stable hemodialysis patients were assessed and divided into the RLS (n = 30) and non-RLS (n = 40) groups. Physical performance was evaluated by a battery of tests: body composition by dual energy X ray absorptiometry, muscle size and composition by computer tomography, while depression symptoms, perception of sleep quality and quality of life were assessed through validated questionnaires. In this cross sectional analysis, the RLS group showed evidence of thigh muscle atrophy compared to the non-RLS group. Sleep quality and depression score were found to be significantly impaired in the RLS group. The mental component of the quality of life questionnaire appeared significantly diminished in the RLS group, reducing thus the overall quality of life score. In contrast, there were no significant differences between groups in any of the physical performance tests, body and muscle composition. Conclusions: The low level of quality of life reported by the HD patients with Restless Legs Syndrome seems to be due mainly to mental health and sleep related aspects. Increased evidence of muscle atrophy is also observed in the RLS group and possibly can be attributed to the lack of restorative sleep. © 2011 Giannaki et al.
  • Anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha therapy improves insulin sensitivity in normal-weight but not in obese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, A; Metsios, GS; Panoulas, VF; Nightingale, P; Koutedakis, Y; Kitas, GD (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2012-07-05)
    Introduction: Insulin resistance (IR), a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, is common among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammation, and especially tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), has been associated with IR, and the administration of anti-TNFα agents is suggested to improve insulin sensitivity. However obesity, a potent contributor to IR, may limit the beneficial effects of anti-TNFα medication on IR. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of anti-TNFα therapy on IR between normal-weight and obese patients with RA.Methods: Patients who were normal-weight with IR (N+IR) or obese with IR (O+IR) and had embarked on anti-TNFα treatment, participated. Assessments included body mass index (BMI), insulin sensitivity (Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA and the Quantitative Insulin sensitivity Check Index, QUICKI), and RA disease characteristics before and following six months of anti-TNFα treatment. Their results were compared to matched (for age, gender, BMI, disease duration and smoking status) normal-weight patients without IR (N-IR) and obese without IR (N-IR), respectively. In total, 32 patients were assessed for this study, with 8 in each group.Results: Following six months of treatment, disease activity was significantly reduced in all groups (P < 0.05) to a similar extent (P for differences between groups > 0.05 in all cases). In the total population, changes in HOMA (mean reduction at 6 m = -0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.088) and QUICKI (mean increase at 6 m = 0.03 ± 0.022; P = 0.092) after treatment were not statistically significant, though a trend towards improvement was observed. However, N+IR patients showed a significant decrease in HOMA (mean reduction at 6 m = -0.54 ± 0.2; P = 0.002) and increase in QUICKI (mean increase at 6 m = 0.046 ± 0.02; P = 0.011). These changes were significantly different compared to the other groups (P < 0.05 in all cases). Multivariable analyses showed that the change in Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), and the change in C-Reactive Protein (CRP) associated with the improvement in HOMA (ESR: F 1-7 = 5.143, P = 0.019; CRP: F 1-7 = 3.122, P = 0.022) and QUICKI (ESR: F 1-7 = 3.814, P = 0.021; CRP: F 1-7 = 2.67; P = 0.041) only in the N+IR group.Conclusions: Anti-TNFα therapy, through controlling inflammation, seems to improve insulin sensitivity in normal-weight RA patients with insulin resistance, but is not sufficient to achieving the same beneficial effect in obese RA patients with insulin resistance. © 2012 Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
  • Respiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion following exposure to secondhand smoke in healthy adults

    Flouris, AD; Metsios, GS; Carrill, AE; Jamurtas, AZ; Stivaktakis, PD; Tzatzarakis, MN; Tsatsakis, AM; Koutedakis, Y; FAME Laboratory, Institute of Human Performance and Rehabilitation, Centre for Research and Technology, Thessaly, Greece. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2012-02-15)
    We assessed the cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical exertion following secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through a randomized crossover experiment. Data were obtained from 16 (8 women) non-smoking adults during and following a maximal oxygen uptake cycling protocol administered at baseline and at 0-, 1-, and 3- hours following 1-hour of SHS set at bar/restaurant carbon monoxide levels. We found that SHS was associated with a 12% decrease in maximum power output, an 8.2% reduction in maximal oxygen consumption, a 6% increase in perceived exertion, and a 6.7% decrease in time to exhaustion (P<0.05). Moreover, at 0-hours almost all respiratory and immune variables measured were adversely affected (P<0.05). For instance, FEV 1 values at 0-hours dropped by 17.4%, while TNF-α increased by 90.1% (P<0.05). At 3-hours mean values of cotinine, perceived exertion and recovery systolic blood pressure in both sexes, IL4, TNF-α and IFN-γ in men, as well as FEV 1/FVC, percent predicted FEV 1, respiratory rate, and tidal volume in women remained different compared to baseline (P<0.05). It is concluded that a 1-hour of SHS at bar/restaurant levels adversely affects the cardiorespiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion in healthy nonsmokers for at least three hours following SHS. © 2012 Flouris et al.
  • The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses

    Jamurtas, AZ; Tofas, T; Fatouros, I; Nikolaidis, MG; Paschalis, V; Yfanti, C; Raptis, S; Koutedakis, Y; University of Thessaly, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Karies, 42100, Trikala, Greece. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2011-10-20)
    Τhe aim of this study was to examine the effects of the consumption of foods of various glycemic index values on performance, β-endorphin levels and substrate (fat and carbohydrate) utilization during prolonged exercise. Eight untrained healthy males underwent, in a randomized counterbalanced design, three experimental conditions under which they received carbohydrates (1.5 gr. kg-1 of body weight) of low glycemic index (LGI), high glycemic index (HGI) or placebo. Food was administered 30 min prior to exercise. Subjects cycled for 60 min at an intensity corresponding to 65% of VO2max, which was increased to 90% of VO2max, then they cycled until exhaustion and the time to exhaustion was recorded. Blood was collected prior to food consumption, 15 min prior to exercise, 0, 20, 40, and 60 min into exercise as well as at exhaustion. Blood was analyzed for β-endorphin, glucose, insulin, and lactate. The mean time to exhaustion did not differ between the three conditions (LGI = 3.2 ± 0.9 min; HGI = 2.9 ± 0.9 min; placebo = 2.7 ± 0.7 min). There was a significant interaction in glucose and insulin response (P < 0.05) with HGI exhibiting higher values before exercise. β-endorphin increased significantly (P < 0.05) at the end of exercise without, however, a significant interaction between the three conditions. Rate of perceived exertion, heart rate, ventilation, lactate, respiratory quotient and substrate oxidation rate did not differ between the three conditions. The present study indicates that ingestion of foods of different glycemic index 30 min prior to one hour cycling exercise does not result in significant changes in exercise performance, β-endorphin levels as well as carbohydrate and fat oxidation during exercise. © 2011 Jamurtas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
  • Immersive storytelling in mixed reality environments

    Doyle, Denise (IEEE, 2018-04-26)
    How will we adapt to a future that may see humans as an interplanetary species? The proposed project uses themes of outer space, future worlds and space travel to examine ways in which our future identities may be formed from these new environments, the role/s we may have in future societies; and the relationships that we will form with the people we will meet. The utilization of virtual and mixed reality (AR/VR) technologies can be a powerful tool in which to place the audience in different scenarios, to experience it from different viewpoints, and to allow them to anticipate what the future may look, feel like, and indeed be like, by being placed into a set of future space scenarios. This paper presents ideas from an interdisciplinary team of artists, scientists, and technologists of methodological approaches for art-science-technology and the prototypes anticipated through these dialogues.

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