• Education case study reports reflection on teaching strategies for pharmacy students

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick (FIP, 2017-12-31)
      Introduction: Teaching should meet the needs of all types of learner present in the class room; the activist, the reflector, the theorist and the pragmatist who also have diverse backgrounds, levels of education and are from different age groups. Aim: The aim of the four projects was to improve students’ engagement and success. Method: New teaching strategies were trialled to improve students’ engagement and successes with topics which according to their feedback were considered ‘dry’. The author utilised techniques such as flipping the class-room, simulation, case or problem based learning; and group work replacing traditional lectures. First, third and fourth year students were asked to prepare for the in-class activities at home using the lectures or simulation software. Results: The strategies were effective in a small class size of 15-20 students, with improved attendance and participation, improved fail/pass rate and number of students achieving credit or pass; however there was no significant change in the number of students achieving high distinction or distinction. Evaluation: Reproducibility is an important part of the experiment to demonstrate that the results can be trusted. Success with one or two cohorts is not sufficient to adopt a method of teaching. Ongoing evaluation is essential to eliminate cohort-related effects prior to implementation. It is not clear if the achieved results would be achievable in larger classes due to the reduction in student: lecturer ratio and limitation of class room time to allow all students to participate.
    • An evaluation of University of Wolverhampton Master of Pharmacy students’ perceptions of pharmacist prescribing

      Morrissey, Hana; Khan, Adnan; Key, Michelle; Ball, Patrick (FIP, 2019-10-31)
      The Prescribers Survey Report 2016 identified 3,944 annotated pharmacist prescribers on the General Pharmaceutical Council register in 2015 with 2,567 independent prescribers, 425 are supplementary prescribers and 952 are both. This survey-based study evaluated the perceptions of University of Wolverhampton Master of Pharmacy students about pharmacist independent prescribing. Ethics clearance was granted by the School of Pharmacy Ethics Board. A link to an online survey was sent to all students enrolled in the Master of Pharmacy course. The anonymous data analysed thematically. Cohort-dependant variations were identified, with Year 1 and 2 students more informed about independent prescribing and including it in their career plans. Students in Year 3 and 4 were more likely to pursue the career if it was appealing after graduation. This may be due to the course workload in Year 3 and 4 plus another year of internship, making further study unappealing at that time.
    • Exploring students' perceptions and opinions about an institutional hierarchy of healthcare professionals and its impact on their inter- professional learning outcomes

      Rabani, Raiharn; Key, Michelle; Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick (International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), 2021-04-06)
      Context: Institutional hierarchy is a phenomenon associated with clinical tribalism. Inter-professional learning is thought to improve a healthcare team's collaboration and communication. Aim: The aim was to evaluate student understanding of institutional hierarchy and perceptions and opinions on their participation in inter-professional learning. Method: Using a questionnaire, this study gathered the opinions of fourth year pharmacy students who had completed two inter-professional learning sessions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted. Results: Students (87.7%, n=50) were aware of the institutional hierarchy concept, listing the order as doctors, pharmacists, nurses then allied health. 61.4% (n=35) were willing to participate in inter-professional learning sessions. Students (70.1%, n=40) agreed that inter-professional learning sessions have added benefit to patient-centred care, and to understanding different healthcare roles in depth (82.5%, n=47) but failed in diminution of the hierarchical ideology. Conclusions: Inter-professional learning sessions did not change students' opinions about posiGoning of doctors as the top of the healthcare institutional hierarchy.