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  • The role of mating-relevant factors in the perpetration of digital dating abuse

    Bhogal, Manpal; Tudor, Courtney; Hira, Simran (SAGE, 2021-12-31)
    Previous research has explored offline intimate partner violence from an evolutionary perspective, primarily focusing on the role of individual differences inperpetration and victimisation. However, a current form of intimate partner violence is digital dating abuse, which involves abuse towards a romantic partner, occuring online through the use of electronic communication technology. This form of abuse differs from offline abuse, in that physical proximity is not required. Although research has focused on the effects digital dating abuse has on victims, little research has focused on the perpetration of digital dating abuse. This is important, as research focused on perpetration can inform a wide range of initiatives geared towards understanding the factors which drive this behaviour. Recent research has focused on evolutionary mating-relevant factors that drive the perpetration of digital dating abuse. Here, we extended and replicated previous work by reporting two studies (study 1, n = 114; study 2, n = 162) which explored the roles of mate value discrepancy, intrasexual competition, and relationship-contingent self-esteem in the perpetration of digital dating abuse. We found that mate value discrepancy (study 1 and 2) and intrasexual competition (study 2) positively predicted the perpetration of digital dating abuse. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to provide support that those who report high intrasexual competition, engage in greater levels of digital dating abuse, thus furthering theoretical advancements in this field by showing digital dating abuse is a mate retention tactic. Our findings further our understanding of online behaviour in romantic relationships through an evolutionary psychological lens.
  • Predicting cardiorespiratory fitness using the 20-m shuttle run test

    Nevill, Alan M; de Menezes-Junior, Francisco José; de Jesus, Íncare Correa; de Fatima Aguiar Lopes, Maria; Corazza, Patricia Ribeiro Paes; Tadiotto, Maiara Cristina; Mota, Jorge; Leite, Neiva (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2021-02-12)
    PURPOSE Recently, doubts have been raised concerning the validity of the 20-m shuttle run test (20mSRT) to predict cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth. Despite these doubts, authors continue to provide powerful evidence that CRF can be predicted reliably using the 20mSRT albeit using contrasting models. Therefore, we aimed to compare a new linear model with an alternative allometric model to predict CRF (peak oxygen uptake, V˙O2peak) using 20mSRT. METHODS The study included 148 adolescents (43% girls), aged 13.37 ± 1.84 years. Adolescents were randomly assigned to validation (n = 91) and cross-validation (n = 57) groups. V˙O2peak was measured using a gas analyser in both maximal exercise tests in the laboratory as well as 20mSRT. Multiple linear regression methods were applied to develop the linear models using 20mSRT (laps), BMI and body fat percentage. Alternative allometric models were also proposed/fitted using 20mSRT (laps), height and body mass. RESULTS The criterion validity of both the linear and the allomeric models were found to be acceptable R2=82.5% and 82.7% respectively, providing reassuring evidence that the 20mSRT can be used with confidence to predict CRF. However, the allometric model identified a height-to-mass ratio, not dissimilar to the inverse BMI (known to be a measure of leanness), to be associated with CRF. The allometric model also revealed that the rise in energy cost (V˙O2peak) with increasing laps was exponential. This will more accurately reflect the non-linear rise in energy demand of shuttle running as the test progresses to exhaustion. CONCLUSIONS These observations provided powerful evidence that allometric models are more than satisfactory in terms of both criterion AND construct validity when predicting CRF (V˙O2peak) using the 20mSRT.
  • A systematic scoping review and textual narrative synthesis of undergraduate pediatric nursing simulations: what, why, and how?

    Cleaver, Karen; Essex, Ryan; Malamateniou, Christina; Narramore, Naomi; Shekede, Heather; Vargo, Elisabeth; Weldon, Sharon Marie (Elsevier, 2021-02-16)
    Background Simulation is increasingly being used to train health care professionals; however, there is limited knowledge on how pediatric simulation is being used to train undergraduate nurses. This article systematically scopes the literature on the types of undergraduate pediatric nursing simulations taking place, their value, the research methods used, and areas of research focused on. Methods A systematic scoping literature review, combined descriptive synthesis, and textual narrative synthesis were conducted. Results A total of 139 articles were identified by the search strategy. Of these, 32 articles were included for appraisal and synthesis. Seventeen articles were quantitative, five articles were qualitative, and eight articles were mixed-methods. The research took place in six different geographical locations. The total participant sample was 2,039. Articles were categorized according to their aims and objectives and simulation types. Conclusions This review revealed the heterogeneity of studies on this subject. Ultimately, studies were small and confined to single institutions or geographical locations. Studies that described or explored simulation as an intervention provided more interesting insights than those that evaluated or tested effectiveness. The variety of simulation types was wide, and the fidelity of the simulations being described was frequently noted; however, no reference was made as to how this was determined. Future studies would benefit from detailing the low, medium, or high technological, psychological, or environmental aspects of simulation.
  • A review of the English school meal: ‘Progress or a recipe for disaster?'

    Lalli, Gurpinder (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
    This paper examines the discourse on school meals as evidence suggests that political agendas feed into policy making. The paper fills a void by proposing new insights into how school meals could be reformed following reflections from a doctoral study and a review of the changing narrative on school food in England. Recommendations include rethinking the coverage on school meals by taking into account this multifaceted area of inquiry by recognising the importance of the physical context of the meals and the subjects of school mealtime.
  • The relationship between obesity and primary total knee replacement: A scoping review of the literature

    Jester, Rebecca; Rodney, Amanda (Elsevier, 2021-02-16)
    Background Primary Total Knee Replacement (TKR) is one of the most commonly performed elective orthopaedic procedures globally. Many of the patients undergoing this type of surgery are overweight or obese. In the UK clinical commissioning groups have imposed arbitrary Body Mass Index (BMI) thresholds for TKR surgery. Many obese patients undergoing TKR believe they will lose weight following the procedure because of increased mobility. Aim This paper aims to present the findings of a scoping literature review about the relationship between obesity and primary TKR and to make recommendations for clinical practice, education and policy Methods A scoping literature review investigated the impact of BMI/body weight on the need for TKR, the impact of body weight and or BMI on patient outcomes following TKR; weight loss/gain following TKR and the implications of obesity on cost of TKR. Findings Seventy-one papers were included in the review. Seven studies reported statistically significant associations between increased BMI/obesity with the need for TKR. Thirty of the studies reported worse outcomes for obese patients compared to non-obese comparators. Forty of the studies reported no difference between obese and non-obese participants including some where outcomes of obese patients were better than non-obese comparators. Eight studies reported on changes to weight before and after TKR, 3 of the studies reporting a higher percentage losing weight than gaining weight and 4 studies reported obese patients gained weight. The 8th study reported morbidly obese patients largely returned to their baseline BMI postoperatively. Conclusion The findings of the review challenge the legitimacy of setting BMI thresholds to control access to TKR surgery. There is an urgent need to develop evidence based approaches to support weight loss and weight management for this group of patients. Obese patients undergoing TKR should receive specific information regarding potential additional risk of complications and poorer outcomes. There is a need for health promotion regarding the association of being overweight/ obese in young adulthood and developing osteoarthritis of the knee joints requiring TKR in middle and older age.
  • Revisiting the concept of the edited collection: Bioinformational philosophy and postdigital knowledge ecologies

    Peters, Michael A; Jandrić, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-02-11)
  • Secondary analysis of loot box data: are high-spending “whales” wealthy gamers or problem gamblers?

    Close, James; Gordon Spicer, Stuart; Louise Nicklin, Laura; Uther, Maria; Lloyd, Joanne; Lloyd, Helen (Elsevier, 2021-02-03)
    Introduction Loot boxes are purchasable randomised reward mechanisms in video games. Due to structural and psychological similarities with gambling, there are fears that loot box purchasing may be associated with problematic gambling. Whilst monthly expenditure is typically modest (i.e. < $20), the distribution is highly skewed, with a small number of high-level spenders, sometimes referred to as “whales”. It is not known what proportion of industry profits are derived from such players, and whether they are typically wealthy individuals and/or problem gamblers. Methods We used structured literature searches to identify surveys of gamers with open-access loot box data. The resulting datasets were aggregated, and correlations between loot box expenditure, problem gambling and earnings investigated using Spearman’s rho correlations. Results The combined open-access data comprised 7,767 loot box purchasers (5,933 with self-report earnings). Secondary analysis of this self-report data confirmed that disproportionate revenue appears to be generated from high-level spenders: the top 5% of spenders (> $100/month) represent half of loot box revenue. Previously reported correlations between problem gambling and loot box expenditure were confirmed, with an aggregate correlation of ρ = 0.34, p < .001. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between loot box spend and earnings ρ = 0.02, p = .10. Conclusion Our secondary analysis suggests that games developers (unwittingly or not) are disproportionately profiting from moderate and high-risk gamblers, rather than high earning customers. Such patterns of spending mirror those observed with gambling revenues, and have implications for harm minimisation and ongoing policy debates around loot boxes.
  • An analysis of the impact of suicide prevention messages and memorials on motorway bridges

    O'Neill, Siobhan; Potts, Courtney; Bond, Raymond; Mulvenna, Maurice; Ennis, Edel; McFeeters, Danielle; Boyda, David; Morrissey, Jacqui; Scowcroft, Elizabeth; Isaksen, Mette; et al. (Wiley, 2021-12-31)
    Recently there has been activity at public locations where people have died by suicide, including the erection of suicide prevention messages and memorials (decorations). This research looks at the impact of these decorations and associated media coverage of the decorations on suicidal behaviour at bridges. Incidents (n=160) of suicidal behaviour on 26 bridges across motorways in England were analysed. Overall, there was no significant difference in the proportion of incidents pre-decoration versus post-decoration (p-value=0.55). The incident rates were not significantly different pre- and post-decoration (p=0.46). Only one bridge had statistically significantly more incidents post-decoration and media reporting (p=0.03). However, following correction for multiple testing there was no significant difference in pre and post-incident rates at any of the bridges. In total, 58% of bridges had a greater frequency of incidents when decorations were absent, however this proportion was not statistically significant (p=0.41). Further research is required to establish how suicide prevention messages are perceived. There does not appear to be any benefit, but it often generates media coverage which has been shown to increase risk. Therefore, a precautionary approach is recommended on the use of suicide prevention messages as an intervention at bridges.
  • A qualitative study of gambling, deprivation and monetary motivations

    Lloyd, Joanne; Nicklin, Laura; Rhodes, Stephanie; Hurst, Gemma (Routledge, 2021-02-09)
    The link between gambling and deprivation is well recognized both in the UK and internationally; and manipulating perceptions of relative deprivation can encourage people to gamble. The current study sought to learn more about whether individuals who gamble consciously perceive themselves to be motivated by feelings of deprivation, and how this is contextualized alongside monetary factors more broadly. Thematic analysis was conducted on 25 in-depth qualitative interviews with UK residents who gamble regularly; most of whom resided in areas of high socio-economic deprivation. Monetary themes relating to financial circumstances, the meaning and value of money, and the perception of gambling as a way to make money, all had strong relevance for deprivation, though people did not often endorse the idea that relative deprivation was important to them, per se. We conclude that gambling motivations are complex and heterogeneous, and that it is pertinent for prevention and intervention strategies for problem gambling to consider individuals’ financial circumstances and how they perceive them, along with how this intersects with their gambling motives.
  • Health professionals’ views and experiences of discussing weight with children and their families: A systematic review of qualitative research

    Heath, Gemma; Abdin, Shanara; Welch, Richard (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-12-31)
    Background: Healthcare professionals are ideally placed to discuss weight management with children and families to treat and prevent childhood obesity. The aim of this review was to collect and synthesise primary research evidence relating to health professional’s views and experiences of discussing weight with children and their families. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE (OVID), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID) and Healthcare Management Information Consortium (HMIC). Twenty-six full text qualitative studies published in English Language journals since inception to October 2019 were included. Papers were quality assessed and synthesised using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Results: Data analysis generated five themes: Sensitivity of the issue; Family-professional relationships; Whole systems approach, Professional competency, Socio- cultural context. Conclusion: Supporting behaviour change through discussion of healthy weight with children and families is an important part of the health professional’s role. Tailored information for professionals including resources and training which facilitates them to confidently talk to children and families about weight should be prioritised within interventions. Success of such interventions requires commitment from a range of professionals to ensure healthy weight is tackled through a whole system approach.
  • Collaborative resilience-building: supporting childhood resilience through interaction between adults and children

    Williams-Brown, Zeta; Jopling, Michael; Daly, Jayne; Aston, Andrew (BESA, 2020-12-31)
    The article reports on the key findings from a project that investigated children’s perspectives on their resilience, including whether they had a positive perception of themselves, whether they believed they were resilient and what support was available. The project formed part of an evaluation of Headstart, a programme funded by the Big Lottery (2017-2021) trialling a range of initiatives for improving resilience and emotional wellbeing in six locations in England. To identify shared perspectives, this study used Q-methodology, which provides a means of gathering quantifiable data from highly subjective viewpoints. In 2018, 55 children (aged 9-16 years) in one of the Headstart locations took part in the data collection during community and school-based activities. There was a clear message from all of the children that, regardless of their self-perception and support networks, they valued the support they received from others, but they did not value the role others played in tackling adversity in their lives. Other findings include a significant link between family support (and the support from other groups) and the child’s self-perception and enjoyment of life. Children with limited or no family support sought the support of friends and Headstart. The paper emphasises the need to ensure there is a collaborative resilience-building approach between adults and children where children are listened too in a range of ways and also encouraged to value the involvement they play in tackling adversity in their lives. This is especially significant given the emphasis placed by all children on accessing their support groups at times of adversity.
  • The physiological effects of a walking to music intervention in adults with intermediate hyperglycemia

    Faulkner, Maria; Murphy, Marie; Davison, Gareth; Rowe, David; Hewitt, Allan; Nevill, Alan; Duly, Ellie; Trinick, Tom; McNeilly, Andrea M (Scientific Research Publishing, Inc., 2021-01-27)
    Purpose: Overweight individuals are at risk of intermediate hyperglycemia (IHG) [1]. Increasing physical activity (PA) in IHG is one method to reduce the risk of glucometabolic and cardiovascular (CV) complications [2]. This study investigates walking to music as a modality to increase moderate intensity PA and regulate glucometabolic disturbances. Patients and Methods: Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) or intervention group (IG) who completed a 6 month walking to music program. Physiological assessments for a range of variables (DEXA, flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and glucometabolic biomarkers) were completed at baseline, 4, 6 and 9 months (follow-up). Results: For IG group, walking compliance decreased with time however 71.4%, 79.5% and 73% of walking completed was moderate intensity at 4, 6 and 9 months. At 6 months IG FMD was significantly lower than UC and HbA1Cwas 5% lower. Other physiological markers were not altered. Conclusion: Walking to music may be a novel method to encourage moderate intensity PA. However, the majority of results demonstrate that this intervention was not more effective than UC in managing glucometabolic and CV biomarkers in IHG. Future interventions should include additional support for the entire study duration however this has cost implications.
  • Learning cities and learning communities: analyzing contextual factors and their impacts on adult and lifelong learning in urban settings

    Németh, Balázs; Issa, Ola; Diba, Farah; Tuckett, Alan (Institute for Pedagogy and Andragogy, University of Belgrade, 2020-06-30)
    This paper will elaborate upon the contextual aspects of community development in the scope of Learning City and Learning Community related practices of knowledge transfer and sharing in urban environments. Engaged colleagues will provide their critical approaches, reflections and proposals upon how we can understand and recognize adult and lifelong learning through communities trying to reach for peace, understanding, social inclusion and sensitive intercultural and intergenerational aspirations in times of difficulties and challenges affecting our vulnerable relationships. This paper will try to point out matters of equity, human discoveries of collection, sharing and saving values, tradition and dignities through Learning Communities in four different cultural environments from the British Isles, India, Palestine and Hungary. Their urban frames might not be necessarily called or considered as Learning Cities, but labels and notions are not the first priority. It is as simple as it sounds: No One Left Behind.
  • A fall from grace: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of unemployment in UK university graduates with common mental health issues

    Cockshott, Christopher J.; Kiemle, Gundi; Byrne, Paula; Gabbay, Mark B. (Scientific Research Publishing, 2021-01-25)
    An exploratory investigation into the experiences of unemployed university graduates with common mental health issues (i.e., depression and anxiety) was conducted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 graduates in their twenties, all of whom had been unemployed between five and 24 months with common mental health issues, generated themes relating to ‘Loss of Expectation and Disorientation’, ‘Waste, Failure and Blame’, and ‘Stigma and Shame’. Participants had experienced a ‘Fall from Grace’ – a descent from a vaunted position of high-esteem and importance as university graduates, with seemingly bright prospects for a privileged future, into a lowly state of unemployment with mental health issues, leaving them feeling tarnished. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on graduate unemployment, crisis and stigma, raising some practical issues for universities, including counselling services, and how they can better manage the transition to employment for their graduates.
  • Postdigital Perspectives on the McPolicy of Measuring Excellence

    Hayes, Sarah (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-12-19)
  • The value of postdigital humans as objects, or subjects, in McDonaldised Society

    Hayes, Sarah; Maggi, Savin-Baden (Springer, 2021-03-21)
    Postdigital human encounters could be said to take shape differently depending on how they are either subjectively valued, or objectively evaluated. Digital technologies and humans are now intimately intertwined with shared and sometimes equal capabilities to perform human tasks. Yet still it may be argued that different disciplinary identities prevent computing and the humanities from being thought of as equivalent. Over many decades, humans and computers have been objectively evaluated in McDonaldised society, via rational language and measures where computing techniques are simply applied to improve productivity. Since the Covid-19 lockdown people have described more personal and subjective digital encounters from their homes, with their virtual identities growing as their physical presence has diminished. This chapter speculates on whether new postdigital positionalities are emerging that might finally challenge more dominant, rational interpretations of what computing means in individual lives. If so, perhaps a more subjective analysis of these new forms of postdigital participation will bring the humanities into computing, instead of vice versa. This could help to reveal the unique positionality in each individual postdigital human encounter, where subjective self-description may now be seen to be more appropriate than objective rationality.
  • Biodigital technologies and the bioeconomy: The global new Green Deal?

    Peters, Michael; Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-11)

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