Welcome to WIRE
(Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-Theses)
WIRE is an open access repository for the research publications and other outputs from postgraduate students and staff at the University of Wolverhampton.
Wolverhampton staff: to deposit your publication to WIRE, go to: https://www.wlv.ac.uk/lib/research/wire/
Use the search box above or the browse function on the left to discover publications from the research community at the University of Wolverhampton.
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Rethinking and optimising post-consumer packaging waste: A sentiment analysis of consumers’ perceptions towards the introduction of a deposit refund scheme in Scotland© 2020 Elsevier Ltd Packaging waste production, especially single-use containers, is exerting detrimental effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, including human health. To internalise the externalities associated with single-use containers, different instruments, including a deposit refund scheme (DRS), have been operationalised in many countries. Therefore, DRS is introduced in Scotland to reduce plastic litters by increasing recycling rates and incentivising pro-environmental behavioural change. This study addresses the complexity of single-use plastic containers by analysing consumers’ perceptions regarding the introduction of DRS in Scotland. Using 940 comments from the BBC “Have Your Say” messageboard, this study adopts sentiment analysis to understand consumers’ opinions about the introduction and implementation of DRS in Scotland. Findings suggest that a UK-wide scheme that is similar in terms of operations and structure is required for DRS to be successful. While consumers’ knowledge and opinions about DRS are mixed, the efficacy of DRS including its relevance is questioned and raises doubts about its contribution to sustainability. The findings imply the need for UK countries to negotiate and collaborate on appropriate and attractive interventions in addressing post-consumer single-use plastic containers. The implications of the findings for policy and practice, especially in improving the operations of DRS are further discussed.
Type of diabetes mellitus and health-related quality of life in Nigeria: ethnic and gender differencesThis study examined quality of life (QoL) differences among diabetic patients in Nigeria by ethnicity, gender and type of diabetes. A total of (N=486) out-patients with diabetes mellitus DM; (type 1=16%, females =71%, Igbo =25% Hausa =22%, Yoruba =32%, Others = 21%, age range 18 to 65) completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQoL) questionnaire. A 4x2x2 (Ethnicity x Gender x Diabetes Type) analysis of variance showed no significant interactions but all main effects were significant. By gender, males had higher QoL scores for compared to females with both Type 2. Type 1 diabetes. The analysis by ethnicity the Yoruba ethnic group reported the highest QoL followed by the Igbo and Hausa groups (which do not differ significantly from each other), with lowest QoL scores for Other ethnic groups. Interventions for diabetes control should take into account ethnic, gender and diabetes type differences to optimize the QoL outcomes.
Tracking children’s physical activity patterns across the school year: a mixed-methods longitudinal case studyDespite the breadth of health benefits associated with regular physical activity (PA), many children in the UK are not sufficiently active enough to meet health guidelines, and tend to become less active as they mature into and throughout adolescence. Research has indicated that children’s school, home and neighbourhood environments can all significantly influence their opportunities to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). However, less is known about how children’s MVPA patterns within these key environments may change across the school year. The current mixed-methods case study aims to explore this issue by tracking key stage 2 (KS2) and key stage 3 (KS3) children’s MVPA patterns across the school year. Fifty-eight children (29 boys, 29 girls, KS2 = 34, KS3 = 24) wore an integrated global positioning systems (GPS) and heart rate (HR) monitor over four consecutive days in the first term of school (autumn), before these measurements were repeated in the two remaining school terms (winter–summer). A subsample of children (n = 6–8 per group) were invited to take part in one of six focus groups each term to further explore their PA behaviours and identify the barriers and facilitators to PA. The children’s MVPA was significantly lower (p = 0.046) in term 2 (winter/spring term) than during the warmer terms (autumn and summer). All the locations showed reductions in MVPA in term 2, except indoor MVPA, which increased, and MVPA on foot in the neighbourhood, which remained consistent. Focus groups revealed location, friends, and the variety of options to be associated with MVPA, and poor weather, parental permission, and time limitations to be barriers to MVPA. This mixed-methodological, repeated-measures design study highlights differences in the activity patterns and perceptions of children over the school year. Future studies should implement longitudinal, multi-method approaches to gain deeper insight into how children’s PA behaviours differ over time. Consequently, this can inform future health policies promoting children’s PA throughout the year.
Explosive strength modeling in children: trends according to growth and prediction equationLower limb explosive strength has been widely used to evaluate physical fitness and general health in children. A plethora of studies have scoped the practicality of the standing broad jump (SBJ), though without accounting for body dimensions, which are tremendously affected by growth. This study aimed at modeling SBJ-specific allometric equations, underlying an objectively predictive approach while controlling for maturity offset (MO). A total of 7317 children (8–11 years) were tested for their SBJs; demographics and anthropometrics data were also collected. The multiplicative model with allometric body size components, MO, and categorial differences were implemented with SBJ performance. The log-multiplicative model suggested that the optimal body shape associated with SBJs is ectomorphic (H = −0.435; M = 1.152). Likewise, age, sex, and age–sex interactions were revealed to be significant (p < 0.001). Our results confirmed the efficacy of the allometric approach to identify the most appropriate body size and shape in children. Males, as they mature, did not significantly augment their performances, whereas females did, outperforming their peers. The model successfully fit the equation for SBJ performance, adjusted for age, sex, and MO. Predictive equations modeled on developmental factors are needed to interpret appropriately the performances that are used to evaluate physical fitness.