Welcome to WIRE
(Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-Theses)
WIRE is an open access repository for the research publications and other outputs from postgraduate students and staff at the University of Wolverhampton.
Wolverhampton staff: to deposit your publication to WIRE, go to: https://www.wlv.ac.uk/lib/research/wire/
Use the search box above or the browse function on the left to discover publications from the research community at the University of Wolverhampton.
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Exploring the relationship between the board of directors and the Shari’ah Supervisory Board in Islamic financial institutions in Saudi ArabiaShari’ah-based governance has grown in the last three decades to become a unique and exclusive system in Islamic financial institutions (IFIs). Although there has been growing research interest in the topic concerning the need to have an efficient and sound Shari’ah corporate governance (CG) system in IFIs, there are no insights into the role and function of governance bodies within this new framework. Specifically, there is a lack of academic studies that have focused on investigating the relationship between the board of directors (BODs) and Shari’ah supervisory boards (SSBs) in the IFIs in Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this research was to examine how the BODs and the SSBs exercise their roles in the Saudi Islamic banks. In order to address this objective, the thesis sought to provide answers to three questions. First, the research attempted to examine the nature of the relationship between the company directors and the SSBs in Saudi Arabia, focusing especially on the roles and tasks of these governance bodies. Second, the research was designed to identify the factors in the CG structure of IFIs in Saudi Arabia that either support or undermine the deployment of the SSBs. Third, it intended to explore potential areas of convergence or divergence which exist between the BODs and the SSBs. A qualitative research approach was used to collect relevant information from the study participants using interviews for the data collection process. Findings drawn from the interviews revealed that the nature of the current relationship between SSBs and the BODs is initiated and sustained by several factors. Some of the important factors which inform the relationship of these two boards include the growing focus and foundation in Saudi Arabia towards the important role that the boards play, including promoting the achievement of IFIs objectives and stakeholder interests. Results from the study also indicated that several factors have been reported to support or undermine the uptake of SSBs. Some of the important facilitators include increasing public and consumer support for the need to have SSBs, the growing consensus among stakeholders to ensure banks offer legitimate products in line with Shari’ah principles, changing perceptions in the Islamic financial sector towards CG, and the desire to achieve effective governance via compliance with Shari’ah and Islamic laws. Finally, data revealed that the roles which the boards play supplement each other towards achieving the same objective of financial growth and stakeholder interests. Fundamentally, the two boards engage in frequent communication and information exchange regarding banking practices, where the outcome includes improved policy and process formulation and practice for their companies. In conclusion, findings from this study show that the SSBs and the BODs need to be perceived as complementary units that supplement each other as opposed to being perceived as being separate and conflicting boards in the IFIs.
Chronic exercise training attenuates prostate cancer-induced molecular remodelling in the testisPurpose Prostate cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in males worldwide and, in addition to impairing prostate function, also causes testicular adaptations. In this study, we aim to investigate the preventive effect of exercise training on PCa-induced testicular dysfunction. Methods As a model, we used fifty Wistar Unilever male rats, randomly divided in four experimental groups. Prostate cancer was chemically and hormonally induced in two groups of animals (PCa groups). One control group and one PCa group was submitted to moderate intensity treadmill exercise training. Fifty weeks after the start of the training the animals were sacrificed and sperm, prostate, testes and serum were collected and analyzed. Sperm concentration and morphology, and testosterone serum levels were determined. In addition, histological analysis of the testes was performed, and testis proteomes and metabolomes were characterized. Results We found that prostate cancer negatively affected testicular function, manifested as an arrest of spermatogenesis. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, arising from reduced testis blood flow, may also contribute to apoptosis of germ cells and consequential spermatogenic impairment. Decreased utilization of the glycolytic pathway, increased metabolism of ketone bodies and the accumulation of branched chain amino acids were also evident in the PCa animals. Conversely, we found that the treadmill training regimen activated DNA repair mechanisms and counteracted several metabolic alterations caused by PCa without impact on oxidative stress. Conclusions These findings confirm a negative impact of prostate cancer on testis function and suggest a beneficial role for exercise training in the prevention of prostate cancer-induced testis dysfunction.
Time-dependent thixotropic behaviours of lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder pastes and flux mediums used in electronic assembliesSolder pastes are widely used as crucial joining material in microelectronic assemblies. This study investigates time-depended behaviours of paste materials (solder pastes and flux mediums) in relation to their transportation, storage, handling and applications. Two fluxes and four commercially available lead-free solder pastes prepared from those fluxes were evaluated. Two rheological test methods – ‘hysteresis loop test’ and ‘step shear test’ were adapted, taking account of actual shear profile of solder pastes and flux mediums. Within hysteresis loop tests, samples were sheared for both single and multiple cycles, with increasing and decreasing shear rates. These tests provided a quick and straightforward way of benchmarking time-depended structural breakdown and build-up of paste materials. The test results also provided an effective means of predicting how the pastes will behave during their use, such as at various stages of the stencil printing process. Step shear tests were performed by applying a sequence of stepwise increase in shear rates. The step-wise increase in shear rate has influenced the timedependent behaviours of solder paste samples and flux mediums. The result from the stepshear-test implies that the build-up of solder paste structure depends mainly on both the previous shear history and the intensity of structural break-down.
Biophysical, psychrometric and physiological limits for continuous liquid and air-based personal cooling systems in working men: A case for amending ASTM2300-10(2016)The ASTM F2300-10 standard testing protocol was implemented for two continuous personal cooling systems (venturi air vest and cold-water perfused vest) with theoretically similar cooling capacities. Secondly, we used the same systems in step-wise increments of either temperature or relative humidity in order to define the upper limit of the prescriptive zone for each (i.e., critical environmental limits method). ASTM F2300-10 standard protocol saw both vests equally effective in reducing cardiovascular and thermal strain relative to a no cooling control. The critical environmental limits method saw the upper limit for humidity significantly increase in both vests, with no differences between the vests. However, the upper limit for temperature was increased in the cold-water vest, with the venturi air vest being no more beneficial than the control. Overall, this study used an evidence-based approach to demonstrate that a single environment, as per ASTM F2300-10, failed to delineate differences between continuous cooling systems promoting discrete mechanisms of heat loss. Most notably, relative to no cooling, the use of the air vest provided no additional evaporative cooling in a low humidity environment, and therefore no increase in the upper limits of critical temperature. This should highlight to end users not to assume that one size fits all for effective personal cooling systems if applied outside of the environment it was tested. Based on these findings, we suggest a range of environments be recommended by the ASTM F2300-10 standard for the evaluation of cooling systems to ensure systems ineffective in certain environments can be identified.
Philosophy of education in a new key: Who remembers Greta Thunberg? Education and environment after the coronavirusThis paper explores relationships between environment and education after the Covid-19 pandemic through the lens of philosophy of education in a new key developed by Michael Peters and the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA). The paper is collectively written by 15 authors who responded to the question: Who remembers Greta Thunberg? Their answers are classified into four main themes and corresponding sections. The first section, ‘As we bake the earth, let's try and bake it from scratch’, gathers wider philosophical considerations about the intersection between environment, education, and the pandemic. The second section, ‘Bump in the road or a catalyst for structural change?’, looks more closely into issues pertaining to education. The third section, ‘If you choose to fail us, we will never forgive you’, focuses to Greta Thunberg’s messages and their responses. The last section, ‘Towards a new (educational) normal’, explores future scenarios and develops recommendations for critical emancipatory action. The concluding part brings these insights together, showing that resulting synergy between the answers offers much more then the sum of articles’ parts. With its ethos of collectivity, interconnectedness, and solidarity, philosophy of education in a new key is a crucial tool for development of post-pandemic (philosophy of) education.