Welcome to WIRE
(Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-Theses)
WIRE is an open access repository for the research publications and other outputs from postgraduate students and staff at the University of Wolverhampton.
Wolverhampton staff: to deposit your publication to WIRE, go to: https://www.wlv.ac.uk/lib/research/wire/
Use the search box above or the browse function on the left to discover publications from the research community at the University of Wolverhampton.
University students and staff can also search WIRE using LibrarySearch
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Parent-carer education: reducing the risks for neonatal and infant mortalityIn this chapter, the role of engaging parents, family members, partners, significant others and carers (subsequently referred to as parent-carers) as key partners in targeted strategies for reducing the risks associated with neonatal mortality is discussed, especially within the context of less resource-constrained environments. Parent-carer education, sharing information on regionally prevalent risk factors and associations with death in the first 28 days of life and in infancy, can be potentially impactful and could drive behavioural changes, while promoting acquisition of newer life-saving skills such as basic life support training. Such education can be considered participatory learning and action. It affords parent-carers the confidence and knowledge on measures to key risks in infancy, such as the risk of sudden infant death, and how to recognize when their baby may be ill, facilitating timely access to appropriate healthcare services. Potentially, these then empower parent-carers to work with health services proactively in measures to reduce the risks for neonatal mortality.
Transmission and accumulation of CTL escape variants drive negative associations between HIV polymorphisms and HLAHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 amino acid sequence polymorphisms associated with expression of specific human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles suggest sites of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated selection pressure and immune escape. The associations most frequently observed are between expression of an HLA class I molecule and variation from the consensus sequence. However, a substantial number of sites have been identified in which particular HLA class I allele expression is associated with preservation of the consensus sequence. The mechanism behind this is so far unexplained. The current studies, focusing on two examples of "negatively associated" or apparently preserved epitopes, suggest an explanation for this phenomenon: negative associations can arise as a result of positive selection of an escape mutation, which is stable on transmission and therefore accumulates in the population to the point at which it defines the consensus sequence. Such negative associations may only be in evidence transiently, because the statistical power to detect them diminishes as the mutations accumulate. If an escape variant reaches fixation in the population, the epitope will be lost as a potential target to the immune system. These data help to explain how HIV is evolving at a population level. Understanding the direction of HIV evolution has important implications for vaccine development.